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Termicidal toxicity of Xylopia aethiopica and Piper guineense seeds on termites, Macrotermes subhyalinus (Isoptera: Termitidae) and toxicological study on liver and kidney functions of albino rats were investigated in the Laboratory at a temperature of 28 ± 2°C and 75 ± 5% relative humidity. The parameter assessed were toxicity of X. aethiopica and P. guineense powders at a concentration of 3 g and extracts at concentrations of 1% - 5%. The toxicity was assessed in term of % mortality of termites. Toxicological studies involved the assay of liver and kidney functions in albino rats. The rats were divided into four groups (Groups A, B, C and D) of five animals each. Group A - Control rats fed with basal diet, Group B - rats fed with basal diet plus 1% plant seeds powder, Group C – rats fed diet supplemented with 2% plant seeds powder and Group D – rats fed diet supplemented with 4% plant seeds powder for 28 days. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, urea and creatinine contents were determined using commercially available kits. The levels of these biochemical functions were also determined in the liver and kidney. The results obtained from this study showed that P. guineense and X. aethiopica methanoic extracts at 4% and 5% concentrations of treatment manifested acute biological activity as shown by high percentage mortality (90 - 100%) of termites within 1hour. The non-availability of Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) in the serum of animals fed with basal diet plus 1%, 2% and 4% of X. aethiopica and P. guineense powders in a significant values with the serum of animal fed with basal diet (control) is an indicator of no chemical assaults in the liver as well as normal Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) activities in the liver of all experimental animals. With the evidence of normal urea and creatinine level in serum rats fed with basal diet (Control-Group A), 1% (Group B), 2% (Group C) and 4% (Group D), it means that there is no toxic effect on kidney function after feeding for a period of 28 days. Therefore, fumigation of wooden structures for the storage of food or all types of domestic furniture made of wood susceptible to termites, M. subhyalinus with X. aethiopica and P. guineense powders and extracts at the tested concentrations may not be likely to cause oxidative liver and kidney damages.