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The microflora from rhizosphere and rhizoplane of Saccharum officinarum was studied and characterized. The total viable count of Nutrient agar plates was observed greater in Rhizospheric sample than rhizoplane sample of sugarcane plant S officinarum). Total viable count of Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) plates was also observed greater in rhizospheric sample than rhizoplane sample. This indicates that microbial number and enzyme activities were higher in the rhizosphere than rhizoplane or root surface. In the present study bacteria like Pseudomonas, Azotobacter, Proteus, Azospirillum, Burkholderia, Rhizobium, Bacilius, Escherichia coli and Herbaspirillum were found in rhizosphere and rhizoplane of sugarcane plant. Among the fungal population isolates obtained were Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Rhizopus.