DETERMINATION OF T. vaginalis AND OTHER ASSOCIATED STIs AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN ABA NORTH, ABIA STATE NIGERIA
Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Volume 4, Issue 4,
Trichomoniasis is a global public health problem affecting human genitals especially women with severe complications in pregnancy. It is poorly reported. A cross sectional survey of pregnant women in Aba North local council, Abia State southeast Nigeria was undertaken using specimen microscopy and structured questionnaire. Of 286 women investigated the overall prevalence of T. vaginalis alone in the population was 2.1%. T. vaginalis disease proportion was associated with age (p < 0.05). Age range of 25-29 years had highest prevalence (4.8%) while 30-34 years had the least infection (1.05%). Pregnant mothers < 18 years and those within 35 years and above had no T. vaginalis infection. There was no association between trimester and disease proportion (p > 0.05). Of other STIs observed, Candida infection was highest (35.3%) while Chlamydia sp had the least prevalence (0.35%). Pregnant mothers within age of 25–29 years had more Candida infection (63.9%) than age group of 40 years and above. E. coli, Bacteria vaginosis, Staph aureus, and Chlamydia sp, had prevalences of 11.6%, 6.32%, 15.79%, and 1.05% respectively. Proportion of T. vaginalis, Candida, and E. coli infections in relation to age were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Proportions of observed STIs were significantly (p<0.05) associated with marital status. Candida sp and Staph aureus infections were more prevalent among traders and least among housewives. T. vaginalis and other STIs were not associated with level of education (p>0.05). There was significant (p<0.05) relationship between number of sex partners and sexually transmitted infections. Use of contraceptive such as condom was associated with proportion of infection (p < 0.05). T. vaginalis and other STIs are important public health threat in Aba hence routine screening and education of women about safe sex are highly recommended.
How to Cite
Sena AC, Miller WC, Hobbs MM, Schwebke JR, Leone PA, Swygard H, et al. Trichomonas vaginalis infection in male sexual partners: implications for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2007; 13-22.
Muzny CA, Schwebke JR, Nyirjesy P, Kaufman G, Mena LA, Lazenby GB, et al. Efficacy and Safety of Single Oral Dosing of Secnidazole for Trichomoniasis in Women: Results of a Phase 3, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Delayed-Treatment Study. Clinical Infectious Diseases; 2021.
Parent KN, Takagi Y, Cardone G, Olson NH, Ericsson M, Yang M, Lee Y, Asara JM, Fichorova RN, Baker TS, Nibert ML. Structure of a protozoan virus from the human genitourinary parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. MBio. 2013 Apr 2;4(2):e00056-13.
Amadi A, Nwagbo A. Trichomonas Vaginalis infection among women in Ikwuano Abia State Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. 2013;17(3):389-93.
Mirzadeh M, Olfatifar M, Eslahi AV, Abdoli A, Houshmand E, Majidiani H, et al. Global prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis among female sex workers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Parasitology Research. 2021; 120(7):2311-22.
Chetty R. Genotyping of trichomonas vaginalis in antenatal women from eThekwini; 2020.
Beyhan YE. A systematic review of Trichomonas vaginalis in Turkey from 2002 to 2020. Acta Tropica. 2021;105995.
Edwards T, Burke P, Smalley H, Hobbs G. Trichomonas vaginalis: Clinical relevance, pathogenicity and diagnosis. Critical Reviews in Microbiology. 2016;42(3):406-17.
Abiye JP. Pregnant women with trichomoniasis in a West African State: A review. EC Emergency Medicine and Critical Care. 2021; 5:2005-20.
Konadu DG, Owusu-Ofori A, Yidana Z, Boadu F, Iddrisu LF, Adu-Gyasi D, et al. Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in the middle belt of Ghana. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2019;19.
Aboyeji A, Nwabuisi C. Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases among pregnant women in Ilorin, Nigeria. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2003;23(6):637-9.
Akpan IU. The prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in Uyo local government area of Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria. Int J Modern Biol Med. 2013;4(3):134-9.
Mairiga A, Balla H, Ahmad M. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infections among antenatal clients in Maiduguri Nigeria. Int J Biol Med Res. 2011;2(4):998-1002.
Alo M, Anyim C, Onyebuchi A, Okonkwo E. Prevalence of asymptomatic co-infection of candidiasis and vaginal trichomoniasis among pregnant women in Abakaliki, South-Eastern Nigeria. Prevalence. 2012;2(7):87-91.
Asemota OO. Trichomoniasis in Nigeria: A review. Biomedical Research. 2018;29(12): 2532-9.
Beyhan YE. A systematic review of Trichomonas vaginalis in Turkey from 2002 to 2020. Acta Tropica. 2021;221:105995.
Webb B, Crampton A, Francis MJ, Hamblin J, Korman TM, Graham M. Increased diagnostic yield of routine multiplex PCR compared to clinician requested testing for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis. Pathology. 2021;53(2): 257-63.
Mabaso N, Abbai NS. A review on Trichomonas vaginalis infections in women from Africa. Southern African Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2021;36(1).
Masha SC, Cools P, Descheemaeker P, Reynders M, Sanders EJ, Vaneechoutte M. Urogenital pathogens, associated with Trichomonas vaginalis, among pregnant women in Kilifi, Kenya: A nested case-control study. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2018;18(1): 1-7.
Mabaso N, Naicker C, Nyirenda M, Abbai N. Prevalence and risk factors for Trichomonas vaginalis infection in pregnant women in South Africa. International Journal of STD & AIDS. 2020;31(4):351-8.
Arbabi M, Delavari M, Fakhrieh-Kashan Z, Hooshyar H. Review of Trichomonas vaginalis in Iran, based on epidemiological situation. Journal of Reproduction & Infertility. 2018; 19(2):82.
Arab-Mazar Z, Niyyati M. Trichomonas vaginalis Pathogenesis: A narrative review. Novelty in Biomedicine. 2015;3(3): 148-54.
Lockhart A, Senkomago V, Ting J, Chitwa M, Kimani J, Gakure H, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of Trichomonas vaginalis among female sexual Workers in Nairobi, Kenya. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. 2019;46(7): 458-64.
Ijasan O, Okunade KS, Oluwole AA. The prevalence and risk factors for Trichomonas vaginalis infection amongst human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women attending the antenatal clinics of a university teaching hospital in Lagos, South-Western, Nigeria. The Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal. 2018;25(1): 21-6.
Oyeyemi OT, Fadipe O, Oyeyemi IT. Trichomonas vaginalis infection in Nigerian pregnant women and risk factors associated with sexually transmitted infections. International Journal of STD & AIDS. 2016; 27(13):1187-93.
Nas FS, Yahaya A, Muazu L, Halliru SaN, Ali M. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis among pregnant women attending ante-natal care in Kano, Nigeria. Eur J Med Health Sci. 2020;2(2):39-45.
Alcaide ML, Feaster DJ, Duan R, Cohen S, Diaz C, Castro JG, et al. The incidence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in women attending nine sexually transmitted diseases clinics in the USA. Sexually Transmitted Infections. 2016;92(1):58-62.
Ambrozio CL, Nagel AS, Jeske S, Bragança GCM, Borsuk S, Villela MM. Trichomonas vaginalis prevalence and risk factors for women in southern Brazil. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo. 2016;58.
Abstract View: 46 times
PDF Download: 27 times