PREVALENCE OF Cryptosporidium INFECTIONS BETWEEN APPARENTLY HEALTHY AND IMMUNO-COMPROMISED INDIVIDUALS AT PARKLANE HOSPITAL ENUGU
Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Volume 4, Issue 4,
Cryptosporidiosis is a disease caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Cryptosporidium, that affect both young animals and humans. A cross-sectional study was conducted among immune-compromised and apparently healthy subjects attending Parklane Hospital in Enugu, to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection and associated risk factors. Faecal and urine samples were microscopically examined to demonstrate Cryptosporidium. While demographic data and other risk factors were obtained by structured questionnaire interview. Only immune-compromised subjects had oocyst of Cryptosporidium with an overall prevalence of 2.82% and there was statistically significant difference (p=0.00213) in proportion of infection between immune-compromised and apparently healthy subjects. For type of samples, faecal material had 11(8.46%) positive cases while no Cryptosporidium was detected in all the urine samples. Male had the highest prevalence of 7.27%, while female had 5.00% Cryptosporidium infection. For age, the highest prevalence was in people within 15 – 25 years (9.09%) and lowest (6.25%) among 36 – 45 years old. People with educational level below primary school had highest prevalence (5.55%) though there was no association between proportion of infection and educational level of subjects (P=0.9618). Subjects who wash their hands before meal had lowest prevalence (0.68%) while those who never wash hand before meal had highest infection (16.6%), those who said that they consumed roadside food had (6,66%) infection. Subjects who used piped water had 6.25% infection, while those who buy water from other sources had 3.06% infection. Those who source water from stream/river had 3.13% infection. Sources of drinking water were associated to proportion of infection (p<0.05). In conclusion, cryptosporidiosis is one of the health problems of immune-compromised patients in Enugu town. These findings confirmed that risk factors such as educational level, age, and types of food and water source are epidemiological factors of Cryptosporidium infection in human.
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