Original Research Article

USE OF CLUSTER ANALYSIS TO MONITOR NOVEL CORONA VIRUS (COVID-19) INFECTIONS IN INDIA

SHABIR A. ZARGAR, TAJAMUL ISLAM, ISHFAQ UL REHMAN, DIGVIJAY PANDEY

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 1-7

Objectives: In December 2019, in Wuhan, China, a novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), a highly infectious disease, was first described. The disease has spread to 210 countries and territories across the world and more than two million people have been infected (confirmed). In India, the disease was first detected on 30 January 2020 in Kerala in a student who returned from Wuhan. The disease has been continuously spreading all the state of India. The main objective of this study was to identify and classify affected districts into real clusters on the basis of observations of similarities within a cluster and dissimilarities among different clusters so that government policies, decisions, medical facilities (ventilators, testing kits, masks, treatment etc.), etc. could be improved for reducing the number of infected and deceased persons and hence cured cased could be increased.

Materials and Methods: We concentrated on the COVID-19 affected states and UTs of India in the report. To fulfill the task, we applied cluster analysis, one of the data mining techniques. The study of variations among various clusters for each of the variables was performed using box plots. We used PAST software for getting for getting a scatter plot for each of the variables.

Results: Results obtained from the clustering analysis and box plot methods for each of the variables. For confirmed cases, cluster I corresponded to the states AP, AR, AS, BR, CG, GA, GJ, HR, HP, JH, KA, KL, MP, MH, MN, ML, MZ, NL, OR, PB, RJ, SK, TN, TG, TR, UP, UK, WB, AN, CH, DNDD, DL, JK, LA, LD, PY. For cured cases, cluster II and for death cases, cluster III corresponded to all the states and UTs of India.

Conclusions: The study showed that the state MH, AP, AR, DL and KL under cluster I have a high number of confirmed cases. The box plots and histogram shows variations among different clusters of the three cases. The trend in box plots and histograms showed a good percentage of cured cases in some of the states and UTs. It was observed that the states (MH, UP, KR, TN, DL and WB) under clusters III had severe conditions which need optimization of monitoring techniques which could help the government in making improvement government policies, actions, etc. to reduce the number of infected persons.

 

Original Research Article

SCREENING OF LIPID PROFILE IN NON- OBESE HYPERTENSIVE SUBJECTS AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN BIHAR

ANANT KUMAR, RAJIVA KUMAR SINGH, VIVEK SINHA

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 35-40

Background: Obesity is a significant risk factor for metabolic syndrome in adults. Central fat distribution greatly alters the lipid profile and induces atherogenic dyslipidemia even in normoglycaemic, non-hypertensive subjects.

Aim and Objectives: Hence, the aim of the present study to assess lipid profile changes in non-obese hypertensive subjects. Obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia are the three highly significant risk factor for the deranged lipid profile. Obesity can be defined as excess accumulation of body fat arising from a sustained or a periodic positive energy balance that when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure [1]. Indicators of overweight are useful in the diagnosis and management of obesity in both children and adults.

Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on newly diagnosed cases of essential hypertension attending medical outdoor of M.G.M. Medical College, Kisanganj. A complete clinical examination including laboratory investigation was done to exclude any systemic or other diseases which are likely to affect blood lipid levels directly or indirectly.

Results: The association between dyslipidaemia, obesity and hypertension is well established and all have been found to be major risk factor for the development of CAD, a leading cause of visits to physician  and cause of death .

Conclusion: Our study was carry out to know the effect of obesity on lipid profile profile only in hypertensive and not in general population, and the study found some definite but paradoxical effects. These are that in obesity on a background of hypertension, the total and LDL cholesterol as also the HDL cholesterol are decreased, but on use other hand, the value of VLDL cholesterol and triglycerides are grossly and significantly increased. These finding have two major Clinical implications in that obese hypertensives will be more prone to metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and steps should be taken to prevent them accordingly and also apart from statins one should treat the obese hypertensives with fibrates, fat restriction and physical exercise also.

Review Article

DEVELOPMENT OF VACCINE AGAINST CORONAVIRUS DISEASE 2019 (COVID-19) IN INDIA

RAYEES A. RATHER, TAJAMUL ISLAM, ISHFAQ UL REHMAN, DIGVIJAY PANDEY

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 13-21

The pandemic declaration of Covid-19 infection by World Health Organization (WHO) and ensuing boundless morbidities and mortalities in practically all nations of the world prompted the innovative work to discover an immunization against SARS-CoV2 infection. Typically any new vaccine takes 10–15 y time. In pandemic circumstance, the whole cycle of vaccine development including clinical preliminaries gets shortened and optimized to 10–14 month time. i.e. the quest for vaccine against Covid-19 is going on at a high speed coming with the good news of two vaccines Covishield and Covaxin. This review aims at highlighting the present stages of development of vaccinesin Indian scenario.

 

Review Article

PHYTOCHEMICAL VIRUCIDAL POTENTIAL OF THERAPEUTIC PLANTS INDIGENOUS TO RAJASTHAN: A REVIEW

MAHIMA SHARMA

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 22-34

Infectious diseases create major unavoidable, devastating and fatal conditions for all mankind. Since ancient times, Indian traditional medicinal system is utilizing the several thousands of plants for treating and to providing protection against various human ailments including various infections and epidemics. Fortunately India is enriched with multiple of plant species proven with their medicinal properties such as antiviral, antibacterial and antimicrobial properties. Researchers concluded phytochemical and pharmacological importance of these precious therapeutic properties of plants. Thorough research and experimentation on the antiviral properties of numerous plants scientifically confirmed the plants potential. The objective of this review is to summarize those plants exploring antiviral compounds activities and their therapeutic actions.

Mini Review Article

NOVEL CORONAVIRUS DISEASE (SARS-COV-2): AN OVERVIEW

DIGVIJAY PANDEY, TAJAMUL ISLAM, MANSOOR A. MALIK

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 8-12

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about school terminations and removing necessities that have upset both work and day to day life for some. Concerns exist that these disturbances brought about by the pandemic might not have impacted people scientists similarly. The virus originated in bats and was transmitted to humans through yet unknown intermediary animals in Wuhan, Hubei province, China in December 2019. The symptoms are usually fever, cough, sore throat, breathlessness, fatigue, malaise among others. Treatment is essentially supportive; role of antiviral agents is yet to be established. Prevention entails home isolation of suspected cases and those with mild illnesses and strict infection control measures at hospitals that include contact and droplet precautions. The virus spreads faster than its two ancestors the SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), but has lower fatality. The global impact of this new epidemic is yet uncertain.

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