Original Research Article

PREVALENCE AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH DIARRHEA MORBIDITY IN CHILDREN UNDER THE AGE OF FIVE YEARS IN TEPI TOWN: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

AMANUEL MENGISTU MERERA

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 40-48

Introduction: Diarrhea is defined as having three or more loose or liquid stools per day. The risk of a child dying before becoming five years of age remains highest in the AFRICAN Region, which is approximately seven times higher than that in the EUROPEAN Region. In Ethiopia, the prevalence rate of diarrhea was 12 % according to 2016 EDHS estimates.

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors with diarrhea among children under 5 years of age in Tepi town.

Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 133 mothers/ care takers in Tepi town, Hibret Kebele. Binary logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratios.

Results: The two-week prevalence of diarrhea among children under five was 24.1%. The diarrhea prevalence of female were 75.2% (OR=0.248), 95% CI: 0.084-0.738, family had 1000-2000 income per month was 39.1% (OR=0.609), 95% CI 2.351-8.682, family which had greater than 2000 income was 45.9% ( OR=0.541); 95% CI: 1.025-2.134, completed primary educational levels 73.6% (OR=0.264), 95% CI:  0.075-0.932, protected source of drinking water were 67.8% (OR=0.322), 95% CI:  0.106-0.982, and no latrine were 18.8% (OR=3.188), 95% CI: 1.087-9.348 were significant predictors of diarrhea. In this study, the prevalence of diarrhea was high, which was significantly associated with sex, income of family, education level, source of drinking water, and availability of latrine. Therefore, efforts should be invested to generate a protected water sources, educate parents about the importance of using a protected and qualified water sources to reduce the exposure of children to diarrhea morbidity and mortality.

Original Research Article

PREVALENCE OF HELMINTH PARASITE OF DOMESTIC CHICKEN (Gallus domesticus) IN DISTRICT KHAIRPUR, SINDH, PAKISTAN

HAFEEZA GUL, M. L. MOHAMMED KALEEM ARSHAN

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 49-52

Poultry is an important sub sector of agriculture and has contributed enormously to food production by playing a vital role in the national economy by contributing towards food security of the country reducing pressure on demand for mutton and beef and earning of foreign exchange. Birds in a traditional and open environment carry a huge risk of parasitic infections. A survey was made to determine the prevalence of helminth parasite of Gallus domesticus in district Khairpur. A total of 46 domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus) were randomly collected from different villages of district Khairpur, were examined for the prevalence of helminth parasite. Seven species of helminth parasites identified, out of which four species of cestodes and three species of nematodes. Cestodes comprises Cotugonia dignopora 44 (91.6%) Raillietina tarquata 40 (86.9%), Raillietina tetragona 20 (43.4%) Choanotaenia infundibulum 6 (13%). Among nematodes 33 (71.7%)  Ascaridia galli were observed. The results of present study revealed that sub-standard poultry farming is a major factor for parasitic infection in local chicken which ultimately cause heavy loss.

Original Research Article

SYNTHESIS AND IN-SILICO ANTI-INFLAMMATORY INVESTIGATION OF 2, 3-DIHYDROCHROMEN-4-ONE AND 3, 4-DIHYDROBENZO[B]OXEPIN-5(2H)-ONE BASED PYRAZOLE DERIVATIVES

C. JEYSIHA, D. ABILASA, G. REXIN THUSNAVIS, R. SUBRAMANIAN, P. PALANISAMY

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 53-66

This study synthesized six pyrazole derivatives from the key intermediates 2,3-dihydrochromen-4-one and 3,4-dihydrobenzo[b]oxepin-5(2H)-one. We have characterized all pyrazole derivatives as well as conducted in silico anti-inflammatory studies. The DFT calculations were performed using Gaussian 09 software. The compound 9 has the lowest energy gap (∆E, 1.0698 eV), lowest hardness (0.5349 eV), highest softness (1.8695 eV), and highest electrophilicity (7.0809eV) among all pyrazole derivatives and standard Aspirin. Swiss ADME software was used to carry out the ADME analysis. The chloro-substituted pyrazole derivatives (5, 6, and 9) were non-toxic, however, the nitrogen-substituted pyrazole derivatives (10, 13 and 14) and Aspirin were toxic. The docking patterns of the pyrazole derivatives with COX-2 selective inhibitors proteins (5F19) have been studied. Compound 9 has the lower binding energy (-10.2Kcal/mol) as compared with that of other pyrazole derivatives and standard Aspirin drugs. As a result, the pyrazole derivatives compound 9 is a promising anti-inflammatory drug with selective COX-2 inhibition as compared to the Aspirin drugs physicochemical properties.

Original Research Article

POST NATAL DEPRESSION A CONCEALED MENACE AMONG SOUTH INDIAN WOMEN – A SYSTEMATIC OBSERVATIONAL ANALYSIS

AROCKIYA ANITA MARGRET, NARAYAN DATTATRAYA TOTEWAD, S. PRASANTHI

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 73-81

Post-natal depression (PND) is a psychological interruption caused after childbirth. It is considered as a threat to women and the newborn that can even haul to fatality. The prevalence and its impact were surveyed in a rustic setup at Kodiyalam village (Tiruchirappalli district). It is aspired to assay the incidence of postnatal depression in a rustic system and detect the causes along with its deleterious outcomes. A survey method was adopted for the study by using purposive sampling technique. Data were collected by semi- structured interview schedule with 80 females as respondents. The survey reported that 16% of the women were affected by the symptoms of social withdrawal and lack of family intimacy. The poor socio economic status is the main reason for the onset of this discomfort and there is a need for intensive counseling and medications to attest this condition. Though there are numerous antidepressants to combat against this psychological condition the severity of its adverse effects are more than its symptoms. PND is an essential clinical condition that requires advanced research and therapeutic competence to strengthen the health of mother and child. This work suggests the implementation alternative strategy of smart herbal nanocomposites which can fortify the delivery of ayurvedic formulations encased with polymers under nanoscale. This can target therapeutics with a unique distribution that reduces its deleterious adverse effects.

Original Research Article

PERCEPTION TOWARDS MALARIA IN PERI-URBAN COMMUNITIES IN ABUJA, NIGERIA

KAREN CHIDERA EZE, OYINLOLA OLUWAGBEMIGA

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 82-88

Malaria is a major problem in most developing African countries in Nigeria. The study therefore examines the perception of residents of peri-urban communities towards Malaria.

The study employed a cross-sectional survey research that is guided by the Health Belief Model using quantitative methods of data collection. The study employed multi-staged sampling technique to select 414 households in Abaji and Kuje peri-urban communities in Abuja. However, 385 household residents of peri-urban communities participated in the study. The validated questionnaire has a Cronbach alpha of 0.83 and perception towards malaria had a Cronbach had 0.88. Research questions and hypothesis were formulated and were tested using the SPSS version 27 to compute descriptive and inferential statistics which were tested at a 5% level of confidence.

Majority of respondents 47.5% are above the age of 36years with the mean age of 47.1± 19.8. In terms of the Perception about malaria, majority of the respondents 35.7% had high perceived serious of the illness while most of the residents, 38.2% had low level of barrier with the mean score of 17.2±.0.2.61. From the test of hypothesis, perceived susceptibility and perceived barriers was significant predictor of perception of malaria occurrence among household residents of Peri-Urban communities with 71.6% contribution to perception towards malaria among household residents of Peri-Urban communities (p=0.000).

In conclusion, there was high perceived seriousness of malaria while there was low level of perceived barrier toward malaria. There is communication messages developed in local languages about the prevention of Malaria in Urban and Peri-Urban communities. 

Original Research Article

SENSITIVITY OF COMMERCIAL ANTIBIOTICS TO PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

RAMI HAMMOD, AHMAD KARA ALI, BADR AL ALI

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 89-93

The sensitivity of human pathogens to some antibiotics used to treat infections and infections caused by these species in humans was tested. The sensitivity of human pathogens to some antibiotics used to treat infections and infections caused by these species in humans was tested. In this study, some pathogenic bacterial isolates, some Gram-negative and Gram-positive, were used. And that from different pathological samples (urine, wound secretions and ear secretions). Obtained from the laboratory of Tishreen University Hospital at Tishreen University in Lattakia Governorate. The sensitivity of pathogenic bacterial isolates to a number of antibiotics was tested using the disk diffusion method. The sensitivity of bacteria was determined by measuring the diameter of the inhibition halos, and its resistance to antibiotics was determined based on the measurement of the diameter of the inhibition zone. The results showed that S. aureus Sensitive only to (SXT) Trimethoprime-Sulfamethoxazole, (VA) Vancomycin, (CN) Gentamycin, and Streptococcus S. faecalis showed sensitivity only to (VA) Vancomycin, (CRO) Ceftriaxone, (AK) Amikacin, (SXT) (rimethoprime-sulfamethoxazole, As for the common P. vulgaris, it was only sensitive to each of the antibiotics (VA) Vancomycin, (AK) Amikacin and (CX) Cloxacillin. And E. coli was allergic only to Trimethoprime-Sulfamethoxa (SXT), (CN)Gentamycin, (LEV) Levofloxacin (SXT) and Amikacin (AK) And if the blue pus bacillus, all strains of P. aeruginosa showed sensitivity only to each of the antibiotics, namely (AK) Amikacin, (CIP) Ciprofloxacin K. pneumoniae showed sensitivity to (VA) Vancomycin, (AK) Amikacin, (LEV) Levofloxacin, (CXm) Cefuroxime, (CRO) Ceftriaxone.

Original Research Article

DIAGNOSIS FOR THE PREVENTION OF ALCOHOLISM IN STUDENTS OF NURSING TECHNICAL TRAINING

BERTA LUISA CORRALES LAGOMASINO, MARINIEVES GÓMEZ CORRALES, MARIO JOAQUÍN GONZÁLEZ FRAGA, RICARDO IZQUIERDO MEDINA, ILEANA LAZARA RAMOS HERNÁNDEZ

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 105-113

Introduction: Alcoholism in the school environment is a negative factor in physical, mental and social development, an investigation was developed based on the search for conditioning aspects of alcohol consumption in students of the School of Medical Sciences, municipality “10 de Octubre” Havana, Cuba in order to support teachers in the daily work which their students.

Methodology: To made the characterization of the Nursing students in technical training at The School of Medical Sciences “10 de Octubre”, a documentary analysis and a survey were carried out as empirical methods, which allowed us to solve the Objective: to specify the aspects conditioning factors over alcohol consumption in students of the Nursing technical training of the School of Medical Sciences "10 de Octubre".

Results: The student survey made it possible, achieve the characterization of the psychosocial, economic, and educational situation, as well as the consumption, knowledge and self-care related to alcohol consumption.

Conclusions: The results allowed to specify the conditioning factors to alcohol consumption and to work from the health promotion to strengthen their self-care when facing alcohol consumption.

Original Research Article

DEPRESSION, ANXIETY AND STRESS AMONG THE PATIENT OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE AT NADIAD CITY, A CROSS SECTIONAL SURVEY

KAILASH NAGAR

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 114-118

Introduction: Chronic kidney disease is considered a public health problem worldwide. It is defined by kidney tissue injury [with or without a decrease in glomerular filtration rate and /or a decrease in kidney function over a period of three or more months. When the glomerular filtration rate [GFR] is below 15ml./min./1.73m2, the patient is in the terminal stage of dialysis, requiring renal replacement therapy [RRT], dialysis, or transplant as alternative treatments. Renal failure is the inability of the kidney to excrete wastes, concentrate urine, and conserve electrolytes. Renal failure is precipitated by a variety of etiological factors. It is treatable but not curable, which means that the patient needs long-term therapy or transplantation.

The overall prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress in this study was found to be 22.9%, 19.2%, and 28.2%, respectively. Forty nine (13.84%) respondents had mild depression twenty eight (7.91%) has moderate depression.

Depression and anxiety are frequent comorbid disorders among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, with an estimated prevalence of approximately 25% in this population, [1] and are associated with worse outcomes, such as progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and mortality [2,3,4,5]. The transition from predialysis management to renal replacement therapy (RRT) is a stressful event in the course of CKD, leading to challenges and decisions that might increase their susceptibility to anxiety, mood disorders or even exacerbate psychological issues that already exist [6].

Aims: The researcher aim to assess the level of depression, anxiety and stress among chronic kidney disease patient in selected hospital of Nadiad City, Gujarat. The research wants to explore the actual psychological status of the patients who were suffering from chronic illness like CKD, because due to long-term suffering from the illness disturbed everyone mind and cause various psychological changes in the body. Hence research wants to assess what kind of changes take place due to chronic kidney diseases.

Objectives:- 1) To assess the level of depression among CKD patients at a selected hospital, Nadiad.

2) To assess the level of anxiety among CKD patients at selected hospital, Nadiad.

3) To assess the level of stress among the CKD patients at selected hospital, Nadiad.

Methodology:

Design and Setting: Descriptive cross sectional survey research design was adopted for the study and a non-probability purposive sampling method was used to drawn samples from the participants. For the data collection researcher has used modified The DASS-42 is a 42 item self-report scale designed to measure the negative emotional states of depression, anxiety and stress, it is a standardized tool.

Prior to data collection written setting permission obtain from the head of the hospital as well as prior informed consent form was obtain from the study participants, the objectives and methods of the study were appropriately explain to the samples. For data collection researcher has select MPUH kidney hospital situated Nadiad City. The total sample size was 30 chronic kidney disease patients.

The research data collection tool consists of the following Section I Demographic variables of the CKD patients section II DASS 42 questionnaire self-rating scale.

Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics were applied where, data were analyzed by using SPSS software, and Frequency, percentage, tables, etc. were used to represent the statistical data in the tables and graphs and figures.

Results: The majority of participants (30%) were 41-50 years, sample (36.67%) belong, age group of above 50 years, majority 56.67% were Male, (43.33%) were graduate, (67%) Having 5000-10000 Monthly Income, (60%) were living in Joint family, (56.67%) were belong to 0-3 years, (23.33%) were belong above 9 years if illness. Duration of hospitalization (80%) 0-15 days.

The prevalence rate of depression, anxiety, and stress among Chronic Kidney Disease the most of patients have 50% had moderate symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress, 30% had mild and only 20% have severe symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress which was measured by DASS self-rating scale.

Conclusions: the currents study ended to assess the prevalence rate of depression, anxiety, and stress among Chronic Kidney Disease patients, the study result concluded that the majority (50%) of Patients having a moderate level of depression, anxiety, and stress. The people in the age group 41-50 or above 50 are having a higher rate of depression, anxiety, and stress during chronic kidney disease.

Original Research Article

IDENTIFICATION OF ANTIULCER ACTIVITY BY INSILICO METHOD IN SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS

R. SHARMILA, S. P. RAJA RAJESHWARI, T. I. REVATHY, R. SARONA, M. SAPPANA SHREE, A. PREETHI, N. PRASANTH, K. AKILA

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 119-126

Ulcer occurs when stomach acid damages the lining of the digestive tract caused by the bacteria Helicobacter pylori. Many pharmacological activities such as antiulcer activity can act against ulcer. Medicinal plants like Mimosa pudica and Vachellia nilotica has the antiulcer activity in a wide range. To study the antiulcer activity in medicinal plants using insilco studies by comparing the phytocompounds of plants with histamine 2 receptor as a binding protein, which is present in the stomach lining of homosapiens. Histamine 2 receptor was modelled using Swiss model and the ligand structures are obtained from PUB-CHEM, viewed easily via PYMOL. All the phytocompounds showed good binding energy with modelled protein on the docking methodology. Specifically ascorbic acid exhibited the lower binding energy of value -3.24 kcal/mol, indole and catechin shows highest binding energy of value -4.99 kcal/mol and -4.98 kacl/mol respectively. The results can be useful for the design and development of phytocompounds having better inhibitory activity against several types of ulcer.

Original Research Article

ANTICANCER POTENTIAL OF Elephantopus scaber L. LEAVES AGAINST MCF -7 CELL LINES

R. JASMINE, N. ABARNA, STEPHY VERGHESE

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 94-98

This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of Elephantopus scaber leaves against breast cancer cell lines. Leaves of the plant were collected, washed, shade dried and powdered. The ethanol extract of the leaf powder was used for the study. The anticancer activity of the ethanol extract of the leaves was evaluated using MTT assay against MCF-7 cells and was confirmed by ETBR-AO staining. The study confirms that the leaf extract of  E.scaber has pronounced anticancer potential against MCF-7 cell lines. The plant investigated possesses remarkable anticancer activity, where the effect was dose dependent and the IC50 value was found to be 79.56 μg /ml. Since the preliminary data is promising, isolation of the compound may contribute to the development  at a novel and natural phytomedicine for the disease. Additional studies are needed to determine its mode of action.

Original Research Article

EVALUATION OF PRESCRIPTION PATTERN OF ANTI DIABETIC DRUG AT VIMSAR (A TERTIARY CARE, HOSPITAL), BURLA

ASHOK KUMAR PANIGRAHI, B. RAY, MANASRANJAN PATI

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 169-175

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM), belongs to the elegance of metabolic sicknesses which the mainsymptom related to this disorder is the excessive sugar ranges in blood for a protracted period. It may be categorised to the world’s principal sicknesses thinking about that influences excessive populace in earth and affords principal sorts I and II. Diabetes headaches include viable blindness, amputation of decrease limb, renal failure, and cardiac arrest or stroke. This evaluate summarizes the pathophysiology for each kinds of DM, the type of antidiabetic medicinal drugs in addition to destiny perspectives. Until now injectable medicinal drugs are greater regularly used which will acquire the proper remedy. Patients choose oral antidiabetic medicinal drugs given that are less complicated to be administered and for that reason researchers consciousness their research at this direction. This paintings additionally aimed to provide and compare viable oral formulations towards DM kind II.

Methodology: Data from 50 no of Patient with Diabetes on the Outpatient of VIMSAR,Burla changed into gathered in step with element Semistructure questionary. The Data encompass Demographic facts and Prescription survey Regarding Drug Prescription Patteren and Drug Utilisation Patteren.

Results and Discussion: In the existing Study amongst Participants the male percent changed into a great deal greater. More male patient. Metformin changed into the maximum famous and regularly prescribed drug for Patient coming to inpatient department. Beside this Sulfonylurea organization is the every other drug prescribed to massive no of Patient.

Conclusion: To acquire most reliable glycemic control, The efficacy of Antidiabetic drug changed into simplest 40% Satisfactory. Hence intensification of modern-day drug remedy in addition to making plans more than one drug remedy with changed way of life justify closer to a hit oral anti diabetic therapy.

Original Research Article

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF RISK FACTORS OF MALARIA RELATED IN-HOSPITAL MORTALITY: A CASE STUDY AT TEPI GENERAL HOSPITAL, SOUTH WESTERN ETHIOPIA

SOLOMON ABEBAW ANDARGIE

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 180-186

Malaria is a major challenge to public health and socio-economic development worldwide and in sub –Saharan Africa in particular. It causes an estimated 300 to 500 million cases and 1.5 to 2.7 million deaths worldwide each year, of which 80% of the cases and 90% of the deaths occur in Sub-Saharan Africa. The main objective of this study was to identify the risk factors of malaria related in-hospital mortality. The data were taken from hospital records at Tepi General Hospital, South Western Ethiopia. A sample of 535 patients were used for the study. The data were analyzed using the classical logistic regression. The results of the study showed that 78.5% of malaria patients were found to be discharged while the rest 21.5% died of malaria in the health center. The classical logistic regression analysis were identified significant predictors. The results from multivariable analysis revealed that age of patient, residence of patient, type of malaria species diagnosed, time from symptom onset to diagnoses, malaria complication, pregnancy and total length of stay in hospital were factors associated with health status of malaria patients. Governmental and non-governmental organizations should focus on continuous awareness creation of early diagnoses and treatment to the societies in rural part of South Western Ethiopia.

Original Research Article

EFFECTIVENESS OF EDUCATIONAL PACKAGE ON LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE REGARDING MISSION INDRADHANUSH AMONG MOTHERS OF UNDER FIVE CHILDREN IN SELECTED URBAN SLUM AREA, BENGALURU, INDIA

JYOTIMA BORGOHAIN HANDIQUE, KALA SUNEETHA, GEETA RAI, BADONDOR SHYLLA

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 216-221

Introduction: Immunization is one of the most important public health interventions to reduce child mortality associated with infectious diseases. Mission Indradhanush was launched in December 2014 and aimed to fully immunize more than 90% of newborns and pregnant mothers by 2020 through innovative and planned approached to reach all children.

Aim of the Study: To assess the effectiveness of educational package on Mission Indradhanush among mothers of under five children.               

Methodology: Quasi -Experimental study, one group, pre-test and post-test design was used .The data collection period was 1 month. Simple Random sampling technique was used to select 60 mothers of under five children. Data was collected using structured questionnaire and checklist.

Results: The mean knowledge score in pre-test was 10.17 with SD of 4.49 and the mean attitude score was 30.58 with SD of 2.39. Where as in the post test the mean knowledge score was found 17.00 with SD of 3.36 and attitude score was 37.21 with SD of 2.50. Paired t-test shows that there was statistical significance at p<0.001 level. It showed, there was an establishing impact of educational package on knowledge and attitude regarding Mission Indradhanush among mothers of under five children and there was significant linear correlation (r=0.486) between knowledge and attitude regarding Mission Indradhanush among mothers of under five children at p<0.05 level.      

Conclusion: The study concluded that the educational package was effective in improving the level of knowledge and attitude regarding Mission Indradhanush among mothers of under five children.

Original Research Article

EFFICACY OF UNRIPE Musa sapientum WHOLE FRUIT ON NEUROMUSCULAR STRENGTH AND OLFACTORY RESPONSE LINKED TO CEREBRO-CEREBELLAR IONIZED CALCIUM, MUSCLE CREATINE KINASE AND PLASMA ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE

O. N. ILOCHI, A. N. CHUEMERE

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 222-231

The performance of daily activities is dependent on several factors, such as strength, balance, flexibility, endurance and perception of sensations of special senses. Unripe Musa sapientum is one of the most cultivated tropical fruit in the world, with scarce literature concerning its neurologic relevance. This study determined the tendency for Unripe Musa sapientum whole fruit hydromethanolic extract to influence neuromuscular strength, endurance and olfaction in normal condition. Peak absorbance was read at 200 to 1100 nm using ultraviolet visible spectrophotometry to determine some bioactive functional groups in unripe Musa sapientum whole fruit extract. The test groups ii-iv were orally subjected to graded doses of unripe Musa sapientum whole fruit; 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg respectively, all compared to control group i. There was a significant dose-dependent improvement in olfactory response, neuromuscular strength and endurance. Unripe Musa sapientum extract caused a dose-dependent significant decrease in plasma creatine kinase but increased acetylcholinesterase and ionized calcium in cerebral cortex and cerebellum. The effectiveness of the extract on the tested parameters was progressive and its efficacy may be dose-dependent.

Original Research Article

PROGRESSIVE CHANGES IN GAIT, KINEMATIC, HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL ACTIVITIES IN RESPONSE TO OLEIC ACID AND HEAVY METAL EXPOSURE

O. N. ILOCHI, A. N. CHUEMERE

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 232-241

Oleic acid has a natural occurrence in most plants and is isolated for use in various industrial and medicinal purposes. The progressive changes in gait, kinematic, vertical and horizontal activities were studied in heavy metal exposure. Male wistar rats were randomly sampled in four groups of control as group i and oleic acid 1, 1.5 and 2ml co-treated with AlCl3 at 50mg/kg as groups’ ii, iii and iv, respectively. Oleic acid, especially at 1.5 and 2ml co-treatment with AlCl3, significantly (P<0.05) enhanced gait, kinematic, vertical and horizontal activities compared to control. same co-treatment doses caused no significant change in calcium compared to control, but plasma level of muscle function markers changed significantly which may reveal a possible link between the dose of oleic acid treatment in heavy metal exposure and skeletal muscle activity. Oleic acid, at the studied dose may prevent or ameliorate the adverse neurologic changes caused by aluminum chloride.

Original Research Article

KNOWLEDGE, PERCEPTION, AND HEALTH SEEKING BEHAVIOUR ON CONTRACEPTIVE USE AMONG ADOLESCENT FEMALE HAWKERS IN IKENNE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, OGUN STATE, NIGERIA

AKINODE DAMILOLA CHRISTIANAH, AGBEDE CATHERINE

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 248-262

This research established the knowledge, perception, associated with health seeking behaviour and the use of contraceptives among female hawkers in Ikeene Local Government Area of Ogun State.

A cross-sectional survey research design was employed in the study. Four hundred and twenty-two (422) female hawkers were sampled. A self-designed questionnaire was the main instrument used for data collection, which was pilot tested through test-re-test and yielded a rehabilitation”Knowledge was measured on 19-point rating scale, perception was measured on 42-point rating scale, environmental variables was measured on 18-point rating scale, enabling variables was measured on 12-point rating scale, health seeking behaviour was measured on a 11 point rating scale and contraceptive use was measured on 7-point rating scale. Data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics (correlation and regression) to give statistical response to the research questions and hypotheses at the 0.5 significant levels.

The result showed that the mean age of the respondents was 15.14±2.42 years. More than half (61.9%) of the respondents were Christians and less than half (43%) were Yoruba. More than half (60.95%) of the respondents had no formal education. Less than half (45.2%) of the respondents had a good level of knowledge on contraceptive use. Most (65.5%) of the respondents had moderate perception. More than half (56%) of the respondents had high environmental factors that reinforce contraceptive use. Few (16.2%) of the respondents reported that their friends encourage them to use contraceptive. The majority (89.3%) of the respondents had low enabling factors that discourage the use of contraceptives. More than half (62.1%) of the respondents had moderate health-seeking behaviour. More than half (61.2%) of the respondents obtained the information on contraceptive from health worker. Majority (95.7%) of the respondents had low contraceptive use. There is a significant relationship between respondents knowledge and contraceptive use (r= 0.144; p=0.0003). Also, there is a significant relationship between respondents perception and health-seeking behaviour towards contraceptive use (r= 0.12; p=0.01).

In conclusion, adolescent female hawkers had moderate level of knowledge, perception, and moderate health seeking behaviour and low contraceptive use. This study recommends that Local government area officials should establish community based youth friendly clinics to promote easy access to contraceptives.

Original Research Article

A STUDY ON DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF CEFPODOXIME IN BULK AND A PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS

S. K. SABEEHA BEGUM, N. BARATHA JYOTHI, R. TULASI, R. SARALA, G. SRAVANI

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 290-299

A simple, rapid, precise, sensitive and, reproducible reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method has been developed for the quantitative analysis of Cefpodoxime in a pharmaceutical dosage form. Chromatographic separation of Cefpodoxime was achieved on Waters Alliance -2695, by using Luna Pheny Hexyl (250mm x 4.6mm, 5µm) column and the mobile phase containing 0.1% TEA adj pH-2.5 with OPA & ACN in the ratio of 75:25% v/v. The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min, detection was carried out by absorption at 222nm using a photodiode array detector at ambient temperature. The number of theoretical plates and tailing factor for Cefpodoxime were NLT 2000 and should not be more than 2 respectively. The linearity of the method was excellent over the concentration range 7-105 µg/ml for Cefpodoxime respectively. The correlation coefficient was 0.999. % Relative standard deviation of peak areas of all measurements always less than 2.0. The proposed method was validated according to ICH guidelines.  The method was found to be a simple, economical, suitable, precise, accurate & robust method for quantitative analysis of Cefpodoxime and study of its stability.

Original Research Article

THE MEDICINAL EFFECT OF BELLADONNA (Atropa belladonna) EXTRACT FOR ABORTION IN THE INDIAN RAT (Rattus rattus)

PRIYADARSHI SHIREESH, MISHRA DEVBRAT

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 300-305

Belladonna is important herbal medicine popular in India. About 100 pregnant female Indian rats were experimented by administrating the extract of Belladonna to study the effect for abortion. Rats showed the different behavior when the different doses were administered in their body by injection. The first cage was used as control while the 2nd 3rd 4th 5th cages was used as experimental animals inhabited 10 pregnant female in each cage. The control cage were not supplied  any dose while cage 2nd were supplied 20ppm of Belladonna extract resulted abnormal behavior in all the test animals but the not any abortion or death have been reported. The 3rd cage was supplied 40ppm of belladonna extract showing abnormal behavior in 80% cases while abortion in 20% cases but no case of death of test animals have been reported. In the 4th cage 60ppm belladonna extract were supplied showed abnormality in 60% animals, abortion in 40% animals was found and no death is reported. In the 5th cage 80ppm belladonna abstract was supplied resulted abnormal behavior in 40% animals, abortion in 60% cases and death in 10% test animals. Cage 6th showed not the abnormal behavior in any test animal but abortion in 100% cases followed by death in 80% animals with abortion. The correlation test have been conducted between the concentration of extract and rate of abortion have been estimated as +0.758256 showing a high  degree of positive correlation as the concentration of extract is increasing the abortion rate also increases. The correlation test also conducted between extract concentration and death rate showed very low positive correlation i.e. +0.123476. The F- Test (Anova) have been conducted to check the significance of data, the F- value have been calculated as 3.92 at 5 degree of freedom and 10% probability less than the tabulated value 4.74 therefore data is significant.

Original Research Article

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF Indigofera zollingeriana SEED OIL

J. O. ALAGBE, M. O. ADEDEJI, Z. HABIBA, GLORIA NWOSU, WYEDIA DABARA COMFORT

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 306-308

The objective of this present study was to examine the physico-chemical properties of Indigofera zollingeriana seed oil. Physico-chemical parameters of oils are important in the determination of edibility and other industrial applications. All the laboratory analysis were carried out using standard procedures according to AOAC (2000). The acid value, peroxide value, iodine value, saponfication value, refractive index and free fatty acids of cold pressed Indigofera zollingeriana seed oil was found to be 17.11 mg NaOH/g, 23.04 meq/kg, 180.4 gI2/100g, 118.7 mg/KOH/g and 14.10 %. The refractive index (20oC) and specific gravity (25oC) was 2.01 and 1.02 respectively. The extracted oil was Indigo in colour at liquid state. It was concluded the oil has a high acid value, peroxide value and free fatty acid which favours the use of the oil for industrial use such as soap production and cosmetics.

Original Research Article

MANDIBLE ANGLE FRACTURES - EFFECT OF TREATMENT ON OCCLUSAL STABILITY AND SOFT TISSUE

NASEER MUNEER ALOTAIBI, MUHAMMAD MUMTAZ

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 309-315

Background: Road Traffic Accidents (RTA) is still the leading cause of all mandibular fractures. The incidence of fractures involving the mandibular angle fractures are stated by most authors to be the second common fractures with a male to female ration of 2:1. Mandibular angle fractures may cause limited mouth opening, and disturbed occlusion, malocclusion resulting from this fracture is due to upward push of posterior segment resulting in premolar contact at ipsilateral molar region. Therefor aim of the treatment is to re-establish the occlusal stability for normal function.

Methods: The study followed a   prospective design and was conducted at Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery department, king Salman hospital, Riyadh Saudi Arabia. Demographic data (Age, gender) and complete medical history were obtained from all patients. All patients were requested to fill the consent form in their native language. A Qusai experimental randomised trial conducted between manual reduction group and arch bar elastic group and P value of <0.05 was considered significant. All analysis was done on SPSS version 18.0.

Results: Total 86-patients with age above 12, were included in the study in which 29 participants (33.7%) were female and 57-participants (66.2%) were male. On the basis of random selection,  these were divided into two equal groups. Soft tissue injury higher in arch bar elastic group (62.7%) as compared to manual reduction group (3.7%). A statistically-significant association was found between arch bar group and manual reduction group (P < 0.0001). The patients treated with arch bar elastics showed a significantly higher gingivitis as compared to the healthy patients. In our study intraoral approach and upper boarder single titinium plate (2mm) with 2x7mm titinum screws two on eac side of facture, were common in both groups. The stability of occlusion and soft tissue injury were two post-operative findings to document.

Conclusion: Patient treated with manual reduction faced less post-operative complications like soft tissue injury and gingiva injury when compared with arch bar elastic group method. Based on this study manual reduction can prevent iatrogenic soft tissue injury and reestablish occlusion, which is the primary goal of treatment.

Original Research Article

PREVELANCE OF OVARIAN CANCER AND ITS CORELATION WITH AGE IN PAKISTAN

MUHAMMAD WAQAR MAZHAR, SAIRA SAIF, AHMAD RAZA, ASMA TAJ, SOHAIL WARIS, ABDUL MANAN, MUHAMMAD IRFAN, HIRA TAHIR, FATIMA MAZHAR

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 336-340

Introduction: group of diseases that is originated from the different parts of ovaries and cause production of abnormal cells that divide uncontrolled themselves in the ovaries is known as ovarian cancer. OC is mainly classified into majorly three types on the base of three components of ovaries known as epithelium, stroma and germinal cells. Approximately, 7000 women develop OC and 4200 of them die every year in UK. In Pakistan the incidence of OC is increasing at the rate of around 13.6%. Approximately 70% cases are diagnosed at later stages.

Methodology: The blood sample was collected by Layyah region. The CA125 identification through Elisa technique for their better identification on the basis of antibodies. Normal values of CA125 were considered less than 35 U/ml. the other tumor marker was also measured such as fibrinogen, prolactin, CA15.3, PT, APTT, INR, D Dimer, and CA19.9.

Results: The mean age of patients was 59.0 ± 8.1while the minimum and maximum age at which the tumor marker detection was 22 and 74 years. The no of patient was found in order of 25 >24 > 10 in 1st, 2nd and 3rd age groups, respectively. The clinical histopathological test in the ovarian cancer patients show that the tumor size 5.21 ± 3.42, fibrinogen 5.09 ± 1.29, CA-199 (U/mL) 121.17 ± 59.76, and D-dimer 0.61 ± 0.31. The CA-125 level increase in ovarian cancer patients it indication as a tumor marker.

Short Research Articles

CORELATION OF HIV WITH PROSTITUTION IN PUNJAB

JAVERIA MEHMOOD, SAIRA SAIF, WAJEEHA IRAM, HAMNA JAVEED, HIRA IFTIKHAR, UJALA KHAN, MUDASARA SIKANDAR, ABDUL MANAN, MUHAMMAD IRFAN, MUHAMMAD WAQAR MAZHAR

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 187-189

Introduction: HIV belongs to the genus lentivirus within the family of retroviridae and subfamily orthoretrovirinae.  In 2017, 1.8 million people were infected with AIDSand 940,000 died due to this serious disease. HIV found in semen, blood, vaginal and anal fluids, breast milk. It is mainly passes on through unprotected sex, sharing needles or syringes and pregnancy during birth and also passed from one person to other person through this route.

Methodology: The HIV patient’s blood sample collected in vial, serological test and HIV Elisa test performed on Elisa plate Reader.

Results: The results shows that 35 (70.00%) out of 50 patients were HIV Elisa positive while15 individuals were HIV Elisa negative. The maximum no of patients were observed in age 45 and 55, minimum no. of patients were found in both age 63 and 25.

Conclusion: These positive tests suggests that the spread of the HIV is due to the unsafe sex or oral sex. Sex may be randomly with HIV effected patients or they do sex without the use of condom. Other main reasons that are responsible for the transmission of HIV includes common use of syringes either by the doctors or by the drug addicted patients that usually share common syringes.

Review Article

INVESTIGATION ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PROBIOTIC MICROBIOTA ON CANCER

P. LOKESH, N. PAVITHRA, K. M. NEELA, J. ANAND PREM RAJAN, M. L. MOHAMMED KALEEM ARSHAN

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 1-31

Cancer is the one of the deadly menace diseases with high medical significance which remains one of the keys that causes ailments and death, the security and firmness of the typical chemotherapeutics drugs and artificial agents used to accomplish cancer are doubtful now a days. These mediators affect the quality of life or sometimes they causative for progress of drug resistance and are not judicious to the majority of the patients So the clinical management of the cancer with high efficiency can done with the probiotic microbiota. An imbalance in the gut microbiota promotes the progress of carcinogenesis through several mechanisms, including inflammation, initiation of carcinogens, and tumorigenic pathways as well. In vivo and molecular studies have exhibited the support to role of probiotics in cancer. Probiotic agents are live microbes or components of microbes that have a positive effect on the host. They exert their action through interaction with the immune system of the host. Some of this effect is localized and some is in improvement in total body system. The Probiotic bacteria are the live microorganisms that, when directed in acceptable amounts, deliberate a healthy benefit on the host, and they have been considered for their protective anti-tumour effects. This review emphases on the role of probiotic microbiota as substitute for the prevention and treatment of cancer in the relation between gut microbiota and the progress of cancer.

Review Article

IMPORTANCE OF NUTRIENTS IN COMBATING WITH COVID-19

MONIKA PANCHANI

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 32-39

In present scenario COVID-19 pandemic is the leading challenge across the globe. This new coronavirus disease is declared to be a global pandemic by the World Health Organization. At present, we are dependent upon lifesaving drugs/vaccines. In addition to the drugs, the essential advisories are to be followed to prevent the spread of COVID-19 like maintaining personal hygiene, physical distancing, respiratory hygiene, vaccination, healthy and balanced nutrition and strong immune system. Our immune system protects against diseases and maintains health. Good healthy nutrition increases the immunity and controls the diseases. We need to pay attention to the importance of nutrition in curing the covid 19. This can help us to understand the relation between disease and our dietary intake. A number of vitamins (A, B6, B12, folate, C, D and E) and trace elements (zinc, copper, selenium, iron) help in maintaining the human immune system and prevent the infections. Vitamin A controls dendritic cell and CD4+ T lymphocyte maturation. Vitamins B6, B12 and folate are useful for proper functioning of natural killer cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Vitamin C fights against infection and helps in phagocytosis and bacterial killing, natural killer cell activity, T lymphocyte function and antibody production. Vitamin D improves cellular immunity. Vitamin E helps in cell-mediated immune responses. Trace amount of zinc increases the proliferation of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes and provides antiviral defence. Trace elements like copper has antiviral properties. Iron is also important for maintaining the immunity. In additions to these nutrients gut micro bacterias are found to be protective against respiratory infection. In this article the role of specific nutrients in the immune system, with regard to antiviral defences have been summarised .

Review Article

EDUCATIONAL COMMUNICATION IN MEDICAL SCIENCES STUDENTS

BERTA LUISA CORRALES LAGOMASINO, MARINIEVES GÓMEZ CORRALES, RICARDO IZQUIERDO MEDINA, ALEXIS GIL LANZ, DANIA VELÁZQUEZ RONDA, MARIO JOAQUÍN GONZÁLEZ FRAGA

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 99-104

Introduction: Taking into account the importance of communication in the school environment for the acquisition of knowledge by the subject, an investigation was developed based on the search for aspects related to educational communication in students of the Faculty of Medical Sciences 10 de Octubre that serve as material for teachers and students in their work with patients, relatives, and their interpersonal relationships,  identifying the conditioning factors in an adequate communicative/educational relationship.

Procedure: The study was carried out with a qualitative approach, theoretical methods such as documentary analysis, systematization, and historical-logical analysis are used, which will lead to the Objective: to propose educational communication in health in medical science students.

Results: The fundamentals of the Communication and Pedagogical Sciences, made it possible to understand that it is necessary to envision learning as a process of interaction and dialogue that allows the construction of knowledge by the subject from his active and reflective intervention.  

Global Considerations: The relationship between communication and education, is a system of influences that aims to achieve the socialization of the individual from the interests and values ​​of a society, in a given context.

Review Article

COMPUTER AIDED DRUG DESIGN: TOOLS TO DEVELOP DRUG FOR COVID 19

BISWARANJAN RAY, ASHOK KUMAR PANIGRAHI, SULOCHANA DUTTA, MONALISA GOCHAYAT

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 127-146

The CADD includes the combined use of modern computational and experimental techniques which provide structural information about the biologically active molecules. These molecules are involved in disease process and in modulating disease process. The processes of CADD methods are dependent on Bioinformatics tools, applications and database.

The present Review article highlights how the modern computational and experimental techniques that have been developed in recent years can be used together to provide structural information about the biologically active molecules that are involved in disease process and in modulating disease process in Special focus to Drug designing for COVID 19 by virtual Screening.

Out Put of the article: The present article may be one tool for new drug development against corona Virus.

Review Article

POTENTIAL OF URAI MATHIRAI (PEDIATRIC SIDDHA FORMULATION) FOR THE PROPHYLAXIS AND MANAGEMENT OF COVID-19 IN CHILDREN

NAINA MOHAMED PAKKIR MAIDEEN, GOBINATH MANAVALAN, KUMAR BALASUBRAMANIAN, S. NIVEDHITHA, M. THIRUMAL, S. VASANTH KUMAR, RAJKAPOOR BALASUBRAMANIAN

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 147-158

The World Health Organization (WHO) data proposes that 8.5% of reported COVID-19 cases belong to pediatric population who are aged less than 18 years. Supportive care alone is recommended in asymptomatic, mild, or moderate pediatric COVID-19 patients by the panel of pediatric infectious diseases physicians and pharmacists from 20 geographically diverse North American institutions. This review article focuses on the prophylactic and therapeutic potential of Urai mathirai in the management of pediatric COVID-19 patients. The literature was looked, in databases such as Medline/PubMed Central/PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Web of science, Directory of open access journals (DOAJ), and reference lists to distinguish published manuscripts relevant to the use of Urai mathirai to prevent or treat COVID-19 in children. The herbs found in Urai Mathirai and their bioactive phytoconstituents possess antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, bronchodilatory and other pharmacological effects relevant to the management of signs and manifestations of COVID-19. The viability of Urai Mathirai in the prophylaxis and management of pediatric COVID-19 patients could further be established by future clinical studies.

Review Article

COVID-19 : EFFECT ON LUNG CANCER PROGRESS

BISWARANJAN RAY, S. N. DASH, SWASTIK PUROHIT, SUMIT PRADHAN

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 159-168

The advent of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused confusion, changed people's living conditions, including commuting restrictions, fear of disease transmission, The corona virus is  "Aladdin's meracle lamp" for lungs cancer, this is a huge curse for lung cancer patients. As the Root of entry of Virus is Respiratory tract,Complicaion arises in lungs.

The risk of chemotherapy-related infections increases for such patients.  "Targeted therapy is generally safe while the potential interaction between immunotherapy and COVID-19 remains unknown at present”. The Present article focus on Different Immunological fact related to COVID-19 and Physiological degradation of Lungs by Corona Virus and Effect on Lung cancer.

Review Article

PEDIATRIC PHARMACOKINETIC: INFLUENCE AND IMPORTANCE

C. K. SAHOO, B. RAY, AMIYAKANTA MISHRA, BIBHANWITA SATPATHY, CHINMAYA RATH

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 195-204

Pharmacokinetic is the movement pattern of drug throughout the body. The study of Pharmacokinetic parameter is immense important during therapy which focus the accurate concentration of drug in plasma and its clearance. The study also suggests the appropriate doses and route of administration for rapid and successful action of Drug. In case of lower age group like pediatric community, the detail study of pharmacokinetic many times enables the safe use of drug as in case of Pediatric group many system like enzyme and excretion criteria are remaining in Underdeveloped condition. Population based models can also limit the sampling required from each individual by increasing the overall sample size to generate robust pharmacokinetic data. This review details key considerations in the design and development of pediatric Pharmacokinetic Parameter.

Review Article

POST COVID PNEUMONIA: MODERN THERAPEUTIC APPROACH BY PULMONARY DRUG DELIVERY DEVICE

B. RAY, S. K. MAHAPATRA, SUBHAM KU. PANDA, SASWAT NANDA

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 205-215

Streptococcus pneumonia (also known as pneumococcal) is a commensal that colonizes the upper respiratory tract and a pathogen that causes intrusive illnesses like otitis media, pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. In India, the Invasive Bacterial Infection Surveillance (IBIS) organization and South Asian Pneumococcal Alliance (SAPNA) have been associated with assortment of significant information in regards to serotype dissemination and antimicrobial obstruction of pneumococcal diseases for over 12 years. COVID 19 Patients are much more prone towards this infection, if untreated at appropriate time. So development of New Device are immense Important which contributes rapid and Proper Drug Delivery to lungs. Research must be carried out in the field of Novel Drug Delivery System for target delivery of Drugs like Antibiotic, Bronchodiator and Corticosteroid to Respiratory Tract. The present Review article focus Different grade of Pneumococcal Infection and Infection associated with Post COVID Condition. The article also highlights new devices which helpful for Pulmonary drug delivery which is vital during COVID Associated Pneumococcal Infection.

Review Article

COVID 19: RECENT VACCINE AND VACCINE UNDER TRAIL

AMISHA PATEL, B. RAY, ASHMAUL HUSSAIN, P. K. BEHERA

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 272-289

Since 2002, there has been a record ofCoronavirus disease outbreak caused by SARS-CoV,MERS-CoV, as well as the novel SARS-CoV-2, the causalagent of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 that broke outin Wuhan, China in December the same year and hassince become widespread across several countries andcontinents leading to thousands of deaths More than 180 vaccine candidates, based on several different platforms(Fig. vaccine platform used for SARS-CoV-2 vaccine developement), are currently in development against SARS-CoV-2(57) (Fig. overview of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development landscape). TheWorld Health Organization (WHO) maintains a working document(57)that includes most of the vaccines in development and is available at https://www.who.int/publications/m/item/draft-landscape-of-covid-19-candidate-vaccines. Clinical trials are evaluating COVID-19 vaccines in tens of thousands of study participants to Generate the scientific data and other information needed to determine safety and effectiveness These clinical trials are being conducted by manufacturers according to rigorous standards.

Review Article

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY, INVESTIGATIONS, AND MANAGEMENT OF VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT

OMAR ELSAKA, MOSTAFA TAREK GHAZALI, ASHRAF HAMADA ABD AL-RAZIK, DALIA HISHAM, ABDULSALAM MAHMOUD ALGAMAL

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 316-327

Background: Ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are still one of the most prevalent surgical indications in newborns and children with congenital heart disease. With advances in echocardiography, cardiac catheterization is no longer necessary in the treatment of these individuals. Although perioperative mortality and morbidity for isolated defects are still low, unique scenarios such as surgical care of numerous VSDs and decision-making in patients with pulmonary hypertension remain difficult. This chapter examines both classic and recent evidence that has shaped the management of this condition, as well as the facts underlying developing interventional methods utilized in both the catheterization lab and the operating room.

Conclusion: VSD is the most common congenital abnormality at birth. Small flaws should close on their own within the first year of life; however, larger faults can cause serious difficulties. The major interventions for big problems are surgical VSD closure and device closure.

Review Article

POST COVID MANAGEMENT OF ASTHMA IN CHRONIC ASTHMA PATIENT

RAJAT DASH, B. RAY, S. N. DAS, SWASTIK KUMAR PUROHIT

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 328-335

Asthma is defined as a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways. The chronic inflammation is associated with airway hyper responsiveness (an exaggerated airway narrowing response to triggers, such as allergens and exercise), that leads to recurrent symptoms such as wheezing, dyspnea (shortness of breath), chest tightness and coughing. Asthma is associated with T helper cell type-2 (Th2) immune responses, which are typical of other atopic conditions. Various allergic (e.g., dust mites, cockroach residue, furred animals, moulds, pollens) and non-allergic (e.g., infections, tobacco smoke, cold air, exercise) triggers produce a cascade of immune-mediated events leading to chronic airway inflammation. The Present Review Discuss and Focus about the various Risk factor associated with Covid 19 influenced Asthma Patient with their Possible Management.

Mini Review Article

THE SCENARIOS OF COVID-19 PANDEMIC IN BANGLADESH: ANALYSIS OF DATA IN JULY ANDAUGUST’2020

AYESHA SIDDIKA, S. M. MASUD PARVEZ, MD. ARIFUR RAHMAN, LIPY KHATUN, ARIFA SULTANA, ZINAT MAHAL, HASAN M. ZAHID

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 67-72

The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic quickly surges throughout the world including Bangladesh from the beginning of 2020. To challenge the present detrimental situations, many countries are approving several preventive measures, e.g., international travel bans, isolated office activities, country lockdown, and most importantly social distancing, even though some medications are prescribed in some extent. The government of Bangladesh also took various preventive measures to limit the thunder of corona virus disease 20019 (COVID-19) pandemic. But, the actions are not adequate to face the challenges of COVID-19 in Bangladesh, particularly in the capital city Dhaka, remarkably because of the lower-middle-income economy with one of the world’s densest populations. In Dhaka city, based on the present populations, social distancing is difficult, and with the nominal resources it would be extremely challenging to implement the mitigation measures of COVID-19. Mobile sanitization facilities, temporary quarantine sites and healthcare facilities could help to improve the pandemic effect. A rapid, caring, and empathic collaboration between the government, citizens, and health experts, along with international assistance, can enable the country to minimize the impact of the pandemic. In this review, we summarize the occurrence (RT-PCR based test) and present scenarios of COVID-19 outbreak in Bangladesh, particularly in the Dhaka city analyzing available data in July and August’2020.

Mini Review Article

A MINI REVIEW ON NON-ANTIBIOTIC THERAPIES TO TARGET EMERGING ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE DURING POST COVID ERA

R. JASMINE, B. N. SELVAKUMAR

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 242-247

Antibiotics considered as miracle drugs and as one of the most demanding life-saving discoveries of the twentieth century have now imposed a threat to society due to its overuse and misuse. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing global problem to which the current COVID-19 pandemic may fuel further. The high number of patients suffering from Covid-19 worldwide have been reported to suffer further from secondary microbial infections. This has become a challenge for the medical community. Hence, various non-antibiotic strategies have been sought after and their mechanisms have been evaluated to mitigate the rise of AMR. This review gives an overview of the success of the alternate methods to combat AMR.

Mini Review Article

MALARIA VECTOR CONTROL HISTORY AND CHALLENGES IN ETHIOPIA: MINI REVIEW

SOLOMON KINDE, ABATE WALDETENSAI, ALEMINESH HAILEMARIYAM, YONAS WULETAW

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 263-271

In Ethiopia, malaria has been an ancient and historical vector-borne disease. Over 75% of the land surface is malarious, and around 60% of the population is malaria at risk with varying intensity. In 1966, concerted eradication efforts began with the motivation being to eradicate malaria from Ethiopia by 1980. And indoor residual spray (IRS) with Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane (DDT) and trained local staff on vector control methods was the main focus. However, malaria prevalence increased, and the major epidemic occurs every 5-8 years. It manifests a significant problem to the economic and social development of the country. The government directed a malaria control action plan under the objectives of Roll Back Malaria (RBM), which guided prevention and control activities. Between 2005 to 2018, Ethiopia distributed around 100 million long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs), and 93.7% of the at-risk population were protected up to 2018 by the IRS. The malaria prevalence rate in 2011 was 1.3 whereas, in 2015, it decreased to 0.5. Ethiopia plans to achieve nationwide malaria elimination by 2030. Malaria is still public health threaten disease & accounts for 30% of the overall disability-adjusted life years lost in Ethiopia. And vector control interventions effectiveness has a serious obstacle due to resistance development to all available insecticide and the flexibility of Anopheles mosquito species behavior. Focuses on the history of malaria eradication and control and the controversial issues in malaria elimination. Requires thoughtful consideration of all risks, benefits, and challenges.

Commentaries / Opinion Articles

PERCEPTION OF NURSING COLLEGE STUDENTS TOWARDS ONLINE TEACHING IN COVID-19 PANDEMIC, A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

KAILASH NAGAR, JYOT DARJI

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 190-194

Background: In December 2019, a pathogenic human corona virus SARS- CoV-2, corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was recognized and has caused serious illness and numerous deaths. The epidemics of COVID-19 have been recorded over 200 countries, territories, and areas with 2 878 196 confirmed cased and 198 668 death cases.

Aims: The current study is to assess the attitude of nursing college students regarding online classes.

Objective:  1. To determine the perceptions of students towards e-learning during the lock down. 2. To assess nursing students attitude towards the online lectures

Methodology:

Setting and Design: Descriptive cross sectional survey research design was used and not probability sampling methods was used to drawn samples through online Google form. The sample collected from nursing college students and study setting was Dinsha Patel College of nursing, Nadiad, Gujarat. There were total 20 attitude question with five point rating scale were used. Total sample were 136 nursing college students. Data has been collected online through Google form.

Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics applied where, data was analyzed by using SPSS software, and Frequency, percentage, tables etc were used to represent the statistical data.

Results: Out of 136, 64(47.05%) were belong age 17-18 years, 115(84.56%) were female, 68(50%) were GNM students, 51(37.50%) B.Sc. nursing Students, 83(61.02%) were third year, 75(55.24%) were live urban, 61(44.86%) were  rural area, 56(41.17%) were  travel 21-30km, 40(29.41%) more than 30km, 65(47.79%) have above 15000 monthly family income 132(97.05%) were used mobile for online lecture 79(58.08%) were have  average network.

Attitude regarding Online Classes where 7 (5.14%) had Inadequate Attitude 86(63.25%) had Moderate Attitude, 43(31.61%) Had adequate Attitude.

Conclusions: Regarding the online lecture 63.25% nursing college students has moderate attitude and 31.61% had adequate attitude it means now days students are line online classes than physical mode due to various reasons such as, time consuming, reduce traveling, risk of accidents and corona, more time can spend with family etc.

Case Reports / Case Studies

THYROIDISM EFFECT ON ALOPECIA PATIENTS IN PAKISTAN

MUHAMMAD WAQAR MAZHAR, JAVERIA MEHMOOD, SAIRA SAIF, HIRA IFTIKHAR, UJALA KHAN, MUDASARA SIKANDAR, ABDUL MANAN, MUHAMMAD IRFAN, TUBA SALEEM, MEHVISH MUMTAZ

Asian Journal of Advances in Medical Science, Page 176-179

TSH is a hormone that is secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and stimulates the secretions of the thyroid gland. Its secretions are controlled by the TSH-R on the epithelial cells of the thyroid gland. It controls the production of the thyroxin hormone from the thyroid gland that is involved in the production of heat and energy. But the excessive amount of this hormone leads to the hair fall in some of the peoples. Hyperthyroidism correlates with the human skin and hair structure and its function. In the case of hyperthyroidism hair bulb cell proliferation increases and hence hair fall rate also increases. While in the case of hypothyroidism the bulb cell proliferation reduces and so, hair fall increases. Samples from different regions of the south Punjab were taken that were analyzed by the special chemistry analyzer (minividas). The concentrations of the T4, T3, and TSH were measured. Some of the alopecia patients were recorded high-level TSH. The patients were treated with thyroxin tablets that reduce TSH level. After that, the patients are also treated with hair fin tab, folli one shampoo, wistin tab, and multivitamins. Now the patients were observed with a microscope. The growth of hair follicles and hairs was recorded. Hence, the thyroxin tab uses to decrease the TSH level in the body for 1 month. Hair fin tab, folli one shampoo, wistin tab, and multivitamins are the best treatment methods for the growth of hairs in alopecia patients.

Copyright @ 1981-2022 MB International Media and Publishing House. All rights reserved.