This study focused on integration and implementation of generic components such as pedagogy, forms of laboratory, physics contents, processes skills, and nature of science in physics laboratories of college of teachers education. The study developed an alternative model of learning that guides selection and integration of generic components. In addition, guided discovery modified into three alternative approaches. Moreover, alternative approach used to select and derive covariates and dependent variables in physics laboratory work. The objective of the study was to analyze associations of independent, some selected covariates, and dependent variables with each other. The study employed tandem design phase III with quasi-experimental approach. Association study used to explore the relationship of variables. Convenience, purposive, and random samplings used to select study subjects. Due to implementation of some selected models of learning, and alternative integration of generic components in physics laboratory the association study of variables indicates that, the effect of procedural knowledge and academic performances had more direct on conceptual knowledge. In addition, using different pedagogies, conceptual knowledge, and academic performance had direct effect on procedural knowledge. Likewise, the effect of procedural knowledge and practicing process skills in physics laboratory had direct effect on motivation. Generally the study explores, an alternative approach of integrating generic components used in physics laboratory session produced unique association among independent, covariates, and depended variables with each other. Thus, when developing science/physics laboratory sessions, integration of generic components and association of students’ learning outcomes and motivation needs consideration.
Depletion of soil fertility due to soil erosion and nutrient mining farming system leads to decline soil productivity and crop yields. The study was initiated to assess soil fertility status and to determine micronutrient concentration in the tissues of maize grown at Daro Labu district, Eastern Ethiopia. A field survey was conducted to collect general information. A total of 12 composite soil samples from the depth of 0-20 cm and 12 maize tissue samples were collected from the district. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 20. The soil texture was sandy clay loam. Soil bulk density was varied from 1.3 to 1.4 g cm-3. The total porosity of soil was very high with a value ranged from 41.5 to 45.3%. The soil pH (6.3 - 6.8) were varied from slightly acidic to a neutral level. The soil was very low in OC content with values ranged from (0.5 to 0.9%). The TN content of the soil was low which was varied from 0.04 to 0.22%. The soils available P content ranging from 10.08 to 16.2 mgkg-1. The CEC of soil was ranged from medium to high. The concentrations of exchangeable Ca and Mg were found to be sufficient in soil of the study area. Exchangeable K was high to very high. The soil had an adequate level of DTPA extractable Fe and Mn whereas deficiency of Cu and B in the soil. The soil showed a deficiency of Zn in 25% of the soil sample. Maize tissue had sufficient concentration of Fe and Mn. However, 41.67%, 41.67% and 75% of maize tissues were deficient in Cu, Zn, and B respectively. The extractable Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, and B concentrations in a plant tissue were positively correlated with their respective soil micronutrients. The study result indicates that OM, total N, Cu, Zn and B are the limiting factors for crop production. The use of integrated soil fertility management practices with increasing organic matter addition should be implemented. Thus, fertilizers containing N, Cu, Zn, and B need to be applied by conducting further experiments under green house and field conditions by considering soil type and crop variety could be recommended.
Participatory demonstration and evaluation of finger millet technologies was conducted at South Gondar Zone of North Western Ethiopia. Besides, recently released variety was used under this demonstration to evaluate its performance with old varieties. It was particularly conducted with in two districts which have differences to some extent in terms of agro ecological and farming system. Four varieties were demonstrated and evaluated at twelve locations and/or sites and evaluated relying on varietal characteristics, farmers’ preferences and feedbacks. Farmers’ variety or local variety which is a variety available at farmers’ hand and cultivated for long time was used as standard check for comparison. Six demonstrations were conducted at the site of Farmers Training Center (FTC) and others were at farmers’ own fields. Quadrant system of yield estimation was employed to estimate average and relative yields of each variety. Regarding yield estimation, in general tesema variety performed highest comparing with others including the local variety. There were no statistically significant mean yield differences among demonstrated varieties between two districts in which demonstrations taken place. However, the average yield of tesema variety was statistically significant from the national average yield recorded by Ethiopian Central Statistical Agency (CSA). All demonstrated and improved varieties had relative yield advantages over local variety. There were also relative yield advantages between improved varieties themselves. Grain color, size, cooking quality, animal feed (palatability), biomass, marketability and disease resistance were identified as the main determinants of variety selection for farmers and different key stakeholders. Relying on this work and preference of varieties, further large scale demonstration need to be conducted to each of the site where demonstrations were undertaken. Variety releasing and development by respective breeders shall to take those variety selection criteria and farmers’ preferences in to account so as scale up and out reach the technology.
The river Cauvery is the main water source for many places in Tamilnadu. It is highly polluted in Erode District due to improper management of textile effluents. This study was carried out to analyse the quality of the Cauvery River in Erode. Planktons are the basic food source of an aquatic ecosystem. Zooplankton diversity is one of the most important ecological indicators for the assessment of water quality. This study was designed to analyse the diversity of Zooplankton of the Cauvery River in Erode, relation to from the period of July to Nov 2018, and the results were recorded periodically. The results revealed that the diversity of Zooplanktons are great good indicators for the river ecosystem and influenced by the quality of river water. The Rotifers are the commonly observed and most dominant zooplankton species present in the Cauvery River. The variation in biodiversity of the water body can be related to water quality. Zooplanktons are also very useful as biological indicators of water quality.
All over the world the herbal medicine acts as the representative of the most important fields of traditional medicine. The medicinal plants are useful for healing as well as for curing of human disease because of the presence of phytochemical and antioxidant constituents. Alfalfa sprouts are often consumed as vegetable salad and their leaves and solid are sold as bulk powdered herb, capsules and tablets for nutritional supplement in health food stores. The extracts from alfalfa sprouts, leaves and roots have been indicated to be helpful in lowering cholesterol level in animal and human studies.