Original Research Article

THE RATIO BETWEEN ORGANS WEIGHT AND BODY WEIGHT IN MALE BLACK BENGAL GOATS

FARNAZ KADER NOVA

Asian Journal of Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 4, Page 11-15

Objective: Estimation of internal organ weight is an important parameter for post-mortem examination. Documentation on the relative weight of various organs in foreign breeds is accessible; however comparable research has not been done on Bangladeshi local varieties. This investigation intended to assist a field veterinarian during post-mortem by demonstrating the normal organ weight and body weight relationship of a male black Bengal goat.

Materials and Methods: The present study included 21 apparently healthy male black Bengal goats, The liver, spleen, and kidneys were the organs that are weighed. The age range was 10-15 months with 10-16 kg body weight.

Results: The data were then statistically and visually estimated. The mean age and body weight was 12.5 months and 13 kg accordingly. An increase in body weight causes changes in the organ weight and the relative organ weights of the liver, spleen and kidney are 2.81 percent, 0.12 percent, and 0.16 percent, respectively.

Conclusion: A relationship was found between internal organs weight and body weight in males whereas, in females, the organ weight relationship is yet to be determined.

Original Research Article

A SURVEY ON PERCEPTION AND PARTICIPATION OF TEACHER TRAINEES TOWARDS ONLINE TEACHING AND LEARNING IN SOUTH BENGAL

MITU DAS

Asian Journal of Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 4, Page 16-26

The COVID-19 has resulted in schools shut all across the world. `Globally, over 1.2 billion students are out of the classroom. As a result, education has changed dramatically, with the distinctive rise of e-learning, whereby teaching is undertaken remotely and on digital platform. This is also true for teacher education. The purpose of this research study is to survey on perception and participation of teacher trainees towards online teaching and learning. In this research, the survey type of tool used as Google forms as a data collection instrument and the sample consists of 196 teacher trainees. The findings highlighted the need for a comprehensive view of the pedagogy of online education that integrates technology to support teaching and learning.

Original Research Article

ASSESSING THE PERFORMANCE OF THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM IN YEMEN USING THE WHO BUILDING BLOCKS FRAMEWORK

AHLAM ALNAQEB

Asian Journal of Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 4, Page 27-35

Background: Yemen, a low-income country in the MENA region is facing one of the worst humanitarian crises in the world due to the ongoing conflict that has begun in 2013.This paper seeks to assess the performance of the healthcare system in Yemen before and during the conflict 2010-2020 and examine the impact of the conflict on the healthcare system performance during the period 2015-2020.

Methods: A literature review from 2010 to 2020 of the evidence reported by international and local organizations as well as in published and unpublished articles and reports. The study used the Building Blocks frame work developed by the WHO (2007; 2009) (hereafter WHO-BB).

Results: The results shown before the war, the healthcare system in Yemen suffered from governance weaknesses and corruption, a huge gap in health financial structure, the unequal density of healthcare workers, poor pharmacological regulations, and weak health information. Moreover, the impact of war on the healthcare system was devastating

Conclusion: Healthcare system in Yemen is weak and fragmented. To overcome this issue the government requires restructuring of the internal healthcare sector with the support of international health agencies.

Original Research Article

TREATMENT OF LAKES WATER CONTAMINATED BY POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS USING HYDRODYNAMIC CAVITATION

AMAL ATEAH, HAITHAM SHAHEEN, HUSSEIN JUNAIDI, AHMAD KARA ALI

Asian Journal of Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 4, Page 36-43

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). The presence of these pollutants in the aquatic environment constitutes a significant danger to living organisms because they are difficult to decompose and cause cancer and genetic mutations. Therefore, they have become a concern in many countries, and effective methods must be found to remove them from the water. In this paper, the removal of PAHs in Sureat lake water was studied. Water samples were taken and analyzed using Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) to determine the concentrations of PAHs. The total concentration of PAHs was 508 ng/L. A hydrodynamic cavitation device was designed using the orifice plate with nine circular holes and different pressures (1, 3, 5, 7, 9 bar) were applied. Then the removal ratio of PAHs was determined at the following time intervals 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes. The results showed that the removal ratio increased with increasing pressure and cavitation time. It was 7 % at (p = 1 bar, t = 5 min) and increased to approximately 100% at p = 7 and 9 bar from t = 25 to 30min.  Removal ratio values were very close at (p = 7, 9 bars) at all times. So p = 7 bar and t = 25 min which corresponded to circulation degree (Lc = 20 times), cavitation number (Cv= 0. 35) and cavitational yield = 5.84*10-9 ng/j were found to be the best economic and environmental working parameters. The results highlight the importance of choosing the cavitation operating parameters to obtain maximum efficiency in removing PAHs from lakes water.

Original Research Article

AUDIT COMMITTEE DIVERSITY AND THE REPUTATION OF AUDIT: EVIDENCE FROM SELECTED NON-BANKS FINANCIAL FIRMS IN NIGERIA

T. N. OFOR, ORJINTA, HOPE IFEOMA, EZECHUKWU, CLEMENTINA IFEOMA

Asian Journal of Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 4, Page 44-58

This study investigated the effect of audit committee diversity on audit quality of quoted non-bank financial firm in Nigeria from (2011-2020). Two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated for the study. Ex-post facto research design was employed in the study. The population of the study included all non-bank financial firms quoted and trading on the Nigerian Exchange Group (NXG) (NSE) as at 31st December 2021 with a sample size of Twenty-two (22) non-bank financial firms selected from the population sector. The study relied on secondary sources of data which was obtained from Annual reports of sampled firms as provided by individual firms and Nigerian Exchange Group (NXG) website. Logistic regression analysis was employed in validating the hypotheses. The study revealed a significant positive effect of audit committee gender diversity, audit fee and firm size on audit quality. Audit committee racial diversity was not significant. Consequent on the findings, the study therefore recommends amongst others that firms should maintain a good proportion of women directors in the audit committee as this has shown by statistical analysis that the reputation of audit is largely affected by the inclusion of women in the audit committee.

Original Research Article

eNAIRA PAYMENT SYSTEM

LEVI ANYEHECHUKWU, CYNTHIA CYNTHIA CHIDERAA

Asian Journal of Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 4, Page 59-64

eNaira is the Nigerian digitized physical Naira presently utilized and circulated by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) in conformity with the CBN Act, Segment 19. The eNaira is designed with a strong security architecture that makes it difficult for anyone to duplicate or create fake units. No eNaira unit is the same with the other. This research seeks to provide all actors within the payment system with a deep understanding of the eNaira payment system. The outstanding features of eNaira were discussed which include eNaira design principles and architecture, wallet tiers of eNaira and transaction limit, and the security architecture of eNaira. With these fundamental details revealed, it is expected that Nigerians should believe that the eNaira will boost the digital economy by enabling a low-cost and highly efficient payment system.

Original Research Article

THE TREND ANALYSIS AND LONG-RUN NATURE BETWEEN HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA

OGHUMA OLADIPUPO IPIGBE, MOSES C. EKPERIWARE, JOHN A. OYETADE, ADEYINKA ADEWUSI

Asian Journal of Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 4, Page 65-75

The analysis looked at changes in economic growth and trends in the development of the Nigerian human capital from 1990 to 2020, alongside the long-term connection between economic progress and the advancement of human capital in Nigeria. Secondary data was utilized for this analysis. Annual data on infant mortality rate, GDP per capita, and primary school enrolment for the period of 1990 to 2020 were obtained from WDI. Data collected were analyzed using tables, graphs, and Auto Regressive Distributed Lag Models. Also, human capital development was disaggregated into health and education components. While the health component of human capital was measured using infant mortality rate and the education component of human capital development was measured using primary school enrolment. Results from the trend analysis showed that economic growth of Nigeria which was proxied by GDP per capita fell from 1500 in 1990 to 1400 in 2001 but rose significantly from 2001 to 2015 before but suffering a downward trend from 2016 to 2020. However, Education which was measured using primary school enrolment rate rose from 85 percent in 1990 to 102 percent in 2006. But, a steady rate of decline followed from 2007 to 2020. More so, the health status of the nation improved considerably within the study period as Mortality rates fell consistently from 120 in 1990 to about 74 in 2020. After confirming the stationarity properties of the data, using ADF and Phillips Perron unit root test, the ARDL was used in the study to look at the long-term connection among the variables. Findings suggests that relationship exists among the variables of interest in the long run. We therefore draw the conclusion that the Nigerian economy has a long-term pattern of relationship with both economic growth and the enhancement of human resources.

Original Research Article

FIRST STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF THE SYRIAN NATURAL ZEOLITE ON AIR BIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION CONCENTRATIONS IN BROILER FARMS DURING SPRING AND AUTUMN

BERNA KRIKOR JILENKERIAN, ALI NISAFI, AHMAD KARA ALI, BUSHRA ALEISSA

Asian Journal of Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 4, Page 84-92

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different levels of Syrian natural zeolite on the bacterial load concentrations in the air of broilers farms for five weeks. This study was conducted in private commercial broiler farm in the Lattakia Governorate, Syria. During the period of 2021 in spring (from March to April), and in autumn (from October to November) seasons. In the experiment, commercial broiler hybrid (Roos 308), with a total number of three thousand one day old were randomly assigned to four groups. Each group (750 birds) has three replicates with 250 birds in each replicates (in addition to the control section), this experiment was designed using complete randomized. The results showed that the average concentrations value for Staphylococcus spp. during spring, at the fifth week of the fattening period, in the treatment Tz3 (75%) was recorded 4.1×105 CFU/m3, while in autumn; the value was 4.3×105 CFU/m3. And for Escherichia coli in spring, was 3.8×103 CFU/m3 and in the autumn 7.5×103 CFU/m3. The results concluded that the addition of Syrian natural zeolite to the broiler litter resulted in significantly (p<0.05) decrease of airborne bacteria at the end of experiment with superior effect to Tz3 treatment in the internal air, and the the lowest concentration was noted in spring compared to autumn. This result provides a guide to the optimal use of the different ratios of the Syrian natural zeolite, and development of new way to reduce the airborne microorganism in the broiler farms.

Original Research Article

ACCOUNTING FOR SUB-SOIL ASSETS IN NIGERIA: ITS IMPLICATIONS, BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES

M. S. IFURUEZE, EZECHUKWU, CLEMENTINA IFEOMA

Asian Journal of Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 4, Page 93-104

The current study focused on accounting for sub-soil assets: Its implications, benefits, and challenges in Nigeria from the theory of comparative advantage point of view. The study employed a survey research design. Two hypotheses were formulated for the study and the one sample t-test was employed in validating the hypotheses. The study found that there is significant adoption and utilization of measurements of sub-soil assets in Shiroro Dam. The study also found that there is significant use of Analytical techniques to improve accountants’ performance in accounting for sub-soil assets. Other qualitative findings emanating from the study included the absence of green and clean sub-soil exploration activities in Nigeria which is a strong factor responsible for the agitations in the Niger-Delta regions of Nigeria. The study also discovered a strong link between accounting for subsoil assets and long-term development. Consequently, the study recommends amongst others that (IAS41-Agriculture) be adopted and maintained as a principle for measuring all costs related to biological assets to ensure proper valuation of sub-soil assets and proper disclosure of green sub-soil exploration thereby mitigating the adverse effect of oil and other sub-soil explorations in Nigeria.

Original Research Article

EFFECT OF AUDIT FIRM SIZE ON MARKET PERFORMANCE OF INDUSTRIAL GOODS COMPANIES IN NIGERIA

P. C. IFURUEZE, A. S. ANICHEBE, MBAH ALICE NKECHI

Asian Journal of Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 4, Page 110-118

This study investigated whether audit firm size of the selected industrial goods firms in Nigeria affect market performance via share prices. Market performance (MAPEF) was used as dependent variable measured using share price and audit firm size (AUDFSZ) was the independent variable measured using Big4 audit firms. The study used sample size companies of 18 quoted industrial goods firms in Nigeria. The study employed ex-post facto and descriptive research design. Secondary data were collected from annual reports of the selected industrial goods firms quoted in Nigeria exchange. The result from the study revealed that Audit firm size (AUDFSZ) has positive and significant relationship on market performance (MAPEF) of industrial goods companies in Nigeria. Based on the above findings, we recommend that emphasis on the use of Big4 audit firms should be encouraged since it has shown to have high chances of improving the market share price of industrial goods firms in Nigeria.

Original Research Article

CONFIRMATION RECORD OF THE AREOLATE GROUPER Epinephelus areolatus (FORSSKÅL, 1775) (TELEOSTEI: SERRANIDAE) IN SYRIAN MARINE WATERS

WAAD SABOUR, MAI MASRI, ZEN ALABDIN BSEMA

Asian Journal of Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 4, Page 119-123

We confirm the Red Sea (Lessepsian migrant) species the Areolate grouper Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål, 1775), occurrences in the Syrian coast, which constitutes the Fifth record in the entire Mediterranean, 220 mm total length and 144.5 g total weight, was caught by the trap-net on 4 October 2022 at a depth of 50 m over sandy – rocky bottom, off Ras Ibn Hani, Lattakia city. The identification of the present specimen of E. areolatus was based on morphological features, colour, and morphometric measurements and meristic counts.

Original Research Article

SMALLHOLDER FARMERS’ ADAPTATION STRATEGIES AND SOCIOECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF CLIMATE VARIABILITY IN BOSET DISTRICT, OROMIA, ETHIOPIA

TARIKE DABA, HURGESA HUNDERA, TESFAYE GANAMO, SAMUEL SHIBESHI

Asian Journal of Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 4, Page 124-133

The study aimed at examining the ongoing adaptation strategies used by smallholder farmers in response to climate variability in Boset district. It also assessed the socioeconomic factors that influence choice of adaptation strategies of smallholder farmers to climate variability risk. For attaining the objectives of the study, both primary and secondary sources of data were employed. The primary data were obtained through household questionnaire, key informant interviews, focus group discussions and observations while secondary data were acquired through desk review. Questionnaires were distributed and filled by 328 respondents and they were identified through systematic random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression model were applied in this study as the main analytical methods. The findings of the study reveal that the sample households have utilized multiple adaptation strategies in response to climate variability such as cropping early mature crops, planting drought resistant crops, growing mixed crops on the same farm lands and others. The results of binary logistic model revealed that education, sex, age, family size, off farm income, farm experience, access to climate information, access to farm input and  farm size were significant and key factors determining farmers’ choice of adaptation strategies to climate variability in the study area. To enable effective adaptation measures, Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resource with its regional bureaus and offices and concerned non–governmental organizations should consider climate variability in their planning and budgeting in all levels of decision making.

Original Research Article

EFFECTS OF FARMLAND FRAGMENTATION ON CROP PRODUCTION OF THE SMALLHOLDER FARMERS: EVIDENCE FROM ARSI ZONE, SOUTH EAST ETHIOPIA

TESHOME BEYENE LETA, AREGA BAZEZEW BERLIE, HURGESA HUNDERA HIRPHA

Asian Journal of Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 4, Page 134-146

Ethiopia has low crop production in the agriculture of smallholder sector where farmland fragmentation is one of the major factors behind this problem. This study aimed at assessing the effects of farmland fragmentation on crop production of smallholder farmers in Arsi zone of South East Ethiopia. Data were generated by using survey questionnaire, focus group discussion, and interviews. Farmland fragmentation was measured by Simpson index and both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Sample sizes of 314 households were selected by using systematic random sampling technique from sampling frames. Simpson index was applied to compute farmland fragmentation. Multiple linear regressions were also employed to test how well fragmentation was able to predict crop production per hectare with relative contribution of each variable in the model. Results indicated that the study area has 3.54 average numbers of plots, 0.55 fragmentation indexes, 0.45 ha mean plot size, and 28 quintals total mean crop production per hectare. The qualitative data results also revealed that land transaction via dividing smaller plots was the major factor for land fragmentation. Multiple regression models established that land fragmentation had negative relationships with crop production per plot. Thus, the study suggested that the local government should curb the need for scarce farmlands by initiating nonfarm livelihood strategies among the farming households.

Original Research Article

OCCURRENCE AND MORPHOMETRICS OF Schistosoma bovis IN CATTLE IN ENUGU STATE SOUTH-EAST NIGERIA

VICTOR S. NJOM, OKABEONYE S. AGBO

Asian Journal of Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 4, Page 147-154

Schistosomes are digenetic trematode that causes the debilitating disease schistosomiasis, which poses serious public health and veterinary concerns worldwide especially in the tropics and subtropics. Environmental changes due to natural or human activities can have impact on the epidemiology and distribution of human and animal schistosomiasis and may lead to interspecies hybridization events. This study ascertained the occurrence and morphometric characteristics of Schistosoma bovis in Enugu State. Microscopy of faecal and warm water incubation of intestinal mesenteric veins of cattle from different abattoirs was used to demonstrate eggs and extract adults of Schistosoma species. Morphotypes of adult and egg morphometry of Schistosoma bovis species were recorded. An over all Schistosoma bovis prevalence of 50.64% was recorded. Proportion of infection varied according to slaughterhouse. Gariki slaughterhouse had highest infection of 31(77.5%), followed by 23(57.5%) in New artisan, 18(45%) in Ogbete slaughterhouse, and 9(22.5%) in Mammy market slaughterhouse. For adult worms, the male mean body length was 4.6 ±1.3mm, while the female mean body length was 7.8±0.07mm, the female length was significantly (p < 0.05) longer than the male while there was no significant difference (p < 0.05) between the male and female body width. There was significant difference between the male and female oral sucker width. Schistosoma bovis eggs seen were spindle shaped possessing a terminal spine. The morphometric characteristics of eggs did not vary according to location (p < 0.05). Prevalence of Schistosoma specie in the cattle could be as a result extensive grazing and drinking from rivers used by human which suggests possibilities of hybridization and zoonotic schistosomes.

Original Research Article

DEVELOPING NATURE-BASED TOURISM IN IMO STATE, NIGERIA THROUGH STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT FOR BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION

OSUAGWU, CHIKEZIE

Asian Journal of Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 4, Page 155-169

Rural communities in Imo state, Nigeria have for centuries preserved monkey habitats via traditional conservation practices (TCP). Research has barely addressed recuring human wildlife conflicts (HWC) and challenges faced by communities who derive no economic or social benefits from their monkeys. This study was aimed at investigating how nature-based tourism (NBT) development implemented though stakeholder engagement could aid biodiversity conservation. Adopting a qualitative method, in-depth interviews (n=25) were conducted with key informants in Lagwa and Ejemekwuru and stakeholders outside the communities. Data was triangulated by observing human-monkey interactions in the locales and monkeys in habitats. Findings reveal that HWC persist due to reducing forest cover and residences/habitats proximity. Locals are uneasy but have no motivation to protect monkeys and habitats, so the TCP is waning. Identified stakeholders are enthusiastic, possess capacity to adopt and would support NBT development. Optimism was high that NBT would stem HWC, empower communities, provide income and help conservation. Processes for stakeholders to achieve conservation through NBT development are recommended. Clear and shared goals, consistent with community aspirations can be achieved by pursuit of conservation education in communities, improvement, reforestation and delineation of habitats. Concessions is recommended to multidisciplinary consortiums with proven technical and financial capabilities. This study could enhance policy and knowledge, while the recommendations would assist service providers, and initiate positive change in the investigated subject fields.

Original Research Article

IMPACT OF SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS ON IRON DEFICIENCY ANAEMIA AMONG ADOLESCENCE GIRLS IN DROUGHT PRONE VAIJAPUR TALUKA

BHIMRAO N. JADHAV, SHESHRAO K. RATHOD

Asian Journal of Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 4, Page 170-175

More than two billion people worldwide having low level of haemoglobin and majority peoples belongs to developing country like India and other Asian country. It is very serious health problem among all age peoples. Women’s are more prone to this deficiency due to lot of reasons; one of them is heavy bleeding during menstrual discharge.  Along with this issue female from rural area do not having awareness about balanced diet and due to insufficient intake of minerals and other nutritive substances diet never fulfil the body  nutritional requirement and female become anaemic. Globally, iron deficiency is known to be the most common nutritional disorder. About 30% of the world's population are iron deficient (ID). 

In our investigation, Haemoglobin testing of 175 adolescence college girls, coming from various places of Vaijapur taluka, are carried out in special ‘Free Haemoglobin Check-up Camp’ in Vinayakrao Patil Mahavidyalaya Vaijapur Dist. Aurangabad M.S. India. From the entire participant, we fill up one survey form to identify the socioeconomic background of this entire participant. Our study showed that, 21.14% respondents were normal, 57.71% respondents having mild anaemia, 17.14% respondents having moderate anaemia and 4 % respondents were shows severe anaemia. In our study 42% female respondent facing menstrual irregularities and stress or anxiety which is one of the cause of anaemia.

Short Research Articles

DETERMINAYION OF SOME HEAVY METAL ELEMENTS IN DUSKY SPINEFOOT, Siganus luridus, FROM THE SYRIAN COAST (EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN) AND ITS RELATIVE RISK FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION

MOHAMAD HASSAN, ALI SULTANEH, GHIASS ABBAS, EN. RAEDA SALAH

Asian Journal of Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 4, Page 1-10

Heavy metal pollution is a serious problem for the environment due to its toxicity, persistency, bioaccumulation. In this study, the concentration of four heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd) in muscle of Siganus luridus from the Syrian marine waters (Eastern Mediterranean) were assessed, to evaluate the potential role of domestic and industrial effluents released without treatment on the quality of the marine environment with consequences to fish resources. Samples were collected from six different areas during two consecutive years, from March 2019 to February 2021. Determination of these metals was carried out using atomic absorption spectroscopy, according to the techniques of electrothermal and flame ablation. Health risk was assessed using estimated daily intake and target hazard quotient. Heavy metal levels were higher in the site relatively close to industrial pollution sources, tourism and agricultural activities. The results showed high concentrations of zinc in the muscle compared to the other metals studied, it ranged between (3.5-6.1 μg/g wet weight), followed by copper with average ranging between (0.4-0.5μg/g wet weight), then lead with concentration (0.016-0.025 μg/g wet weight), while cadmium was the least concentrated (0.005-0.008 μg/g wet weight). All of these concentrations were within the limits allowed by the World Food and Agriculture Organization. The averages of EDI and THQ values for children were higher than adults. However, both of them were below the harmful and hazardous levels, indicating that consumption of S. luridus in the Syrian coast will not lead to health risks from the four heavy metals studied.

Review Article

DATA SECURITY IN CLOUD: A REVIEW

SANDESH ACHAR, HRISHITVA PATEL, SANWAL HUSSAIN

Asian Journal of Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 4, Page 76-83

Although many apps benefit from having access to data on the cloud, doing so exposes data to applications that may already have security flaws. The security of data in the cloud is covered in this essay. It is an investigation of cloud data and all security-related aspects of it. In order to provide maximum data protection by lowering risks and threats, the paper will go into detail on data protection methods and tactics utilised globally.

Insights on data security issues for Data-at-Rest and Data-in-Transit will also be provided in the paper. The analysis is based on all cloud services, including platform as a service (PaaS), infrastructure as a service (IaaS), and software as a service (SaaS) (Software as a Service).

Review Article

WILL COVID-19 PANDEMIC ALIGN STOCK RETURNS TO GDP GROWTH IN KENYA?

OBURA POLYCARP

Asian Journal of Advances in Research, Volume 17, Issue 4, Page 105-109

Many countries are experiencing slow economic growth and reduced activity at the stock market. Stock markets always provide the vital role of acting as a leading indicator for economic growth. Even though there is no consensus on whether the two variables are positively or negatively correlated from previous studies, there is unanimity to the fact that stock market returns greatly affect economic growth of a country like Kenya.

This review offers an intensive and extensive literature review of how stock market returns will correlate to economic growth in this period and factors that might influence the resultant behavior. The review also investigates whether factors Kenyan Stock returns are going to be aligned to the GDP influenced by factors such as foreign investments, disposable income, dominant stocks and investor sentiments.

This review established that the growth in Kenya's GDP, like that of many countries, will follow stock market returns in slowing down in response to the pandemic. This is attributed to reduced propensity to invest caused by reduced disposable income job losses and negative investor sentiments. The study advices stakeholders to pay keen attention to the Kenyan stock market returns in order to project economic growth if the market is devoid of interferences. The government is urged to cushion businesses and employers from the harsh economic tides in order to avail disposable income to as many people as possible who will in turn invest in stocks.

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