Main Article Content



Wildlife forensic is the implementation of the combined sciences, natural and cultural science. The court of law focused on the regulation of wildlife protection and conservation. Criminals that regulate illicit trade across nations and continents face the most significant threat. The tiger is the largest of all cats, the most iconic, and one of the most endangered. Due to its higher trading value, those animals are unlawfully slaughtered or poached for black-marketing, medical use and jewellery products. Tiger or leopard protection indirectly protects habitats and ecological health. By transmitting signals through vision, scent marks and voices, they are socially connected. Because of the dramatic reduction in tiger numbers, studying their behaviour habits is very difficult. Therefore, in this study, the Indian Leopard and Bengal Tigers [Felidae-family] are studied using the non-destructive approach through its claw nail markings. The transactional survey was the approach adopted for collecting data-signs of tiger nail bruises. This review focuses on the study of their behavioural habits and extensively study them for their conservation.


Cat family, behaviour pattern, claw marks, wildlife forensics

Article Details

How to Cite
Review Article


Bishnu Prasad Bhattarai, Pavel Kindlmann, et al. Interaction between Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris) and Leopard (Panthera pardus): implications for their conservation. Biodivers Conserv. 2012;2075-2094.

Ullas Karanth K, Melvin E. Sunquist. Prey selection by tiger, Leopard and dhole in tropical forest. Journal of Animal Ecology. 1995;439-450.

"what-when-how," [Online].

Pawar B. 10 Endangered Animals in India That You Should See Before They Vanish!; 2019. [Online].

Aritra Kshettry, Srinivas Vaidyanathan, et al. Leopard in a Tea- cup: A Study and human - leopard interaction in North Eastern India. Plos One. 2017;1-15.

Hrishikesh Pathak, Pradeep Dixit, et al. Unique fatality due to claw injuries in a tiger attack: A case report. Legal Medicine. 2014;381-384.

Rajesh Kumar Mohapatra, Sudarsan Panda, et al. Study on activity pattern and incidence of stereotypic. Journal of Veterinary Behaviour. 2014;1-5.

Bhim Gurunga, James L. David Smitha, Charles McDougalb. Factor associated with human-killing tigers in Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Biological Conservation. 2008;3069-3078.

Maximilian L. Allen, Lan Hocevar, et al. Where to leave a massage? The selection and adaptive significance of scent marking sites for eurasion lynx. Behaviroral Ecology and Sociobilogy. 2017;1-25.

Yahr P. Hormonal Influences on Territorial marking behavior. Harmones and Aggressive Behavior. 1983;145-175.

Robert M. Gibson, Tom A. Langen. How to animal choose their mates?. TREE. 1996;468- 470.

Burger MEBV. Chemical characterization of territorial marking fluid of male Bengal Tiger, Panthera Tigris. pp. 1-22.

Simone B. Soso, Jacek A. Koziel. Analysis of odorants in marking fluid of siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) using simultaneous sensory and chemical analysis with headspace solid -phase microextraction and multidimension Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry. MDPI. 2016;1-22.

Glyn R. Banks, Alan J. Buglass, John S. Waterhouse. Amines in the marking fluid and anal sac secretion of the tiger, Panthera tigris. Z. Naturforsch. 1992;618-620.

Andrew Hayes R, Toni Lyn Morelli, et al. Volatile components of Lemur scent secretion vary throughout the year. American Journal of Primatology. 2006;1202-1207.

Florian Elchmann, Dietrich V. Holst. Organization of territorial marking behavior by testosterone during puberty in male tree shrews. Physiology and Behaviour. 1998;65: 785-791.

Andersen KF, Vulpius T. Urinary volatile constituents of the lion, Panthera leo. Chemical Senses. 1998;179-189.

Kasim Rafiq, Neil R. Jardan, Carlo Melora. Scent-marking strategies of a solitary carnivore: boundary and road sent marking in leopard. Animal Behaviour. 2019;115-126.

Mellen JD. A comparative analysis of sent- marking social and reproductive behavior in 20 species of small cats (felis). Annual meeting of American society of zoologists. 1991;27-30.

Roger P. Johnson. Scent marking in mammals. Animal Behaviour. 1973;521-535.

Venkataraman M. Observation of petrolling behaviour in male lions in Gir protected area, India. CAT News62. 2015;1-28.

James L. David Smith, Charles Mcdougal et al. Scent marking in free-ranging tigers, Panthera tigris. Animal Behaviour. 1989;1-10.

Pettersson LG, Perfiliev S, et al. Role of claws and pads in taking and holding food in cats. Neuroscience Research. 1998;343-346.

ltaliya AH. Non-distructive technique for individualizing trace evidence analysis of tiger nail. Forensic Science and Criminology. 2017; 1-5.

Landsberg GM. Feline scratching and destruction and the effects of declawing. Advances in Companion Animal Behaviour. 1991;265-279.

Robert Steinmetz, David L. Garshelis. Estimating ages of bear claw marks in Southeast Asian tropical forests as an Aid to population monitoring. Ursus. 2010;143-153.

Bart J. Harmsen, Rebecca J. Foster, Said M. Gtierrez. Scrape-marking behavior of jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas concolar. Journal of of Mammalogy. 2010;1225-1234.

Francisco Palomares, Noa Gonzalez-Borrajo. Scraping marking behaviour of the large Neotropical fields. Peer J. 2018;1-25.

Arash Ghoddousi, Taher Ghadirian. Territorial marking by the persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor pocock, 1927) in Bamu National park, Iran. Zoology in the Middle East. 2008;101-103.

Alptuğ Sarı, Ebubekir Gündoğdu, Şağdan Başkaya. Habitat preference by the anatolian leopard (panthera Pardus talliana valenciennes), 1856. Belgian Journal of Zoology. 2020;153- 168.

Du Bothma J, Leriche EAN. Evidence of the use of rubbing, scent-marking and scratching - post by kalahari leopard. Journal of arid Environments (1995). 1993;511-517.

Bruce M. Rothschild, Bill Bryant. The power of claw. Plos One. 2013;8:1-4.

Maximilian L. Allen, Heiko U. Wittmer et al. Scent marking in Sunda clouded (Neofelis diardi): Novel observation close a key gap in understanding field communication behavior. Scientific Reports. 2016;1-9.

Helena A. Soni, Susan U. Linville. Investigation of secent on check and foreheads of large felines in connection to the facial marking behavior. Journal of Chem Ecology. 2012;145-156.

Sarma KK, Bhattacharjee PC, et al. Microscopical analysis of guard hair of tiger, panthera tigris, with reference to wild life forensic application. Journal of Advanced Microscopy Reaserch. 2014;1-7.

Abhijit Rabha, Prasanta Kumar Saikia, et al. Distribution location of Royal Bengal Tiger-panthera tigris in manas National park, Assam, India. Journal of Global Bioscience. 2015; 2174-2180.

Chukkath Vijayan Rajani, Harshad Sudhir Patki. Histomorphological differentiation of the skin of leopard (Leopard Pardus), leopard cat (Prionnailurus Bengalensis), Bengal Tiger (Panthera Tigris) and Golden Jackal (Canis aureus). Veterinary World. 2020;827-832.

Sandeep Sharma, Yadvendradev Jhala, et al. Identification of individual tigers (Panthera tigris) from their pug marks. Zoological Society of London. 2005;9-18.

Sing R, Qureshi Q, et al. Distinguishing sex of free-ranging tigers using pugmark measurement. Italian Journal of Zoology. 2014; 1-6.

Edward J. Narayan, Tempe Parnell, et al. Faecal cortisol metabolites in Bengal (Panthera tigris tigris) and Sumatran tigers (panthera tigris sumatrae). Gernal and Comparative Endocrinology. 2013;318-325.

Vipin Vinita Sharma, Chandra Prakash Sharma, Ved P. Kumar, et al. Pioneer identification of fake tiger claws using morphometric and DNA-based analysis in wildlife forensic in India. Forensic Science International. 2016;2-18.

Jyotsna Bhagavatula, Lalji Singh, et al. Genotyping faecal sample of bengal tiger Panthera tigris for population estimation: A pilot study. Biomed Central. 2006;1-12.

Pranay Amruth Maroju, Sonu Yadav, et al. Schrodinger's scat: A critical review of the currently available tiger (Panthera tigris) and Leopard (Panthera pardus) specific primer in India, and a novel eopard specific primer. Biomed Central. 2016;1-6.

Mario Encinoso, Jorge Oros, et al. Anatomic Study of the Elbow Joint in a Bengal Tiger (panthera tigris tigris) using magnetic resonance imaging and Gross dissection. MDPI. 2019;1-13.

Jennifer A. Parkinson, Thomas Plummer, et al. Characterizing feil tooth marking and gross bone damage patterns using GSI image analysis: An experimental feeding study with large feilds. Human Evolution. 2014;1-21.

Eliza R. C. Hagens, Mark I, Van Berge Henegoumen. Distribution of lymph node metastases in esophageal carcinoma (tiger study): Study protocol of a multinational observational study. BMC Cancer. 2019; 1-8.

M. John F. Lazar. Commentary: How to “spot” a leopard its in the gene. The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular. 2019;1-2.

Vincent Bourret, Vicky Albert, et al. Past, present and future contributions of evolutionary biology. Evolutionary Application. 2020;1420- 1435.

Judith A. Stryker, Jim L. Atkinson, et al. Behavior repertoire assessment of Bengal tigers (panthera tigris) with focus on thermoregulatory behavior. International Journal of Biometeorology. 2019;1753-1757.

Simono Cafazzo, Eugenia Natoli, et al. Scent-marking behaviour in a pack of free-ranging domestic Dogs. Ethology International Journal of Behavioural Biology. 2012;1-12.

Kristina Vogt, Elizabeth Hofer, et al. Is there a trade- off between scent marking and hunting behaviour in a stalking predator, the eurasion lynx, Lynx Lynx?. Animal Behaviour. 2015;59-68.