Original Research Article

EFFECT OF POLYHERBAL FORMULATION OF Boerhavia diffusa, Sesbania grandiflora, Moringa olifera, AND Solanum nigrum AGAINST GASTROENTERITIS AND ITS VALIDATION USING In silico APPROACH

R. SUDHA

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 1-14

Boerhavia diffusa, Sesbania grandiflora, Moringa olifera, and Solanum nigrum are indigenous plants that have been used in traditional medicine for treating various gastroenteritis. The present study aimed to demonstrate the Acid-neutralizing capacity, invitro anti-urease, anti-oxidant, inhibition of lipid peroxidation ability, anti- Inflammatory, and H+/K+ ATPase inhibition activity of hydroalcoholic extract of the polyherbal formulation. The phytochemicals present in the polyherbal formulation (PHF) were identified by GC – MS analysis. The total Phenolic Content and total Flavonoid content of phytochemicals were quantified. Phytochemical interactions with the active sites of urease were supported by Molecular docking analysis. The results revealed that 0.02 mg of phenolic content and 0.013 mg of flavonoids per gram of plant extract were observed, PHF had acid- neutralizing capacity better than the standard antacid tablet, 38% of anti-urease activity towards urease enzyme, 64% of inhibition of lipid peroxidation against oxidation of lipid bilayer, 59% of inhibition of protein denaturation, 37% of haemolysis inhibition, 80% of H+/K+ ATPase inhibition activity in the goat parietal cells. There were 14 functional compounds tend to interact with the enzyme urease. But two compounds directly interacted with the active site of ureases.

Original Research Article

REVEALING BIOACTIVE MEDICINAL COMPOUNDS FROM MORINGA AND NEEM FLORAL HONEY BY ATR-FTIR SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY

R. PREMKUMAR, T. RAMESH KUMAR

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 15-23

Honey is having the natural antiseptic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties. Antibacterial and antiseptic qualities are present in honey. To characterize the moringa and neem honey biochemically, a physicochemical, total phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant activities are assessed. An UV-VIS spectrometric study is used for assess total phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant activities. Moringa and neem floral honeys chemical characteristics were assessed using FT-IR Spectroscopy. A total of 296 to 464 mg of gallic acid is equivalent per kilogram of honey were found in phenolics. From 45 to 50 mg of quercetin is equivalent per kilogram of honey will found to be present overall. Inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for antioxidant activity ranges from 4.68 to 5.60 mg mL-1, and FT-IR Spectroscopic revealed that presence of alcohol, carboxylic acid, ester, ether, phenol, and amine in both floral honey sample. This study found that the neem honey is superior to moringa honey in terms of both nutritional value and therapeutic value. The FT-IR spectra revealed that the similarities between the two types of honey relates to their chemical components. This type of research will assist the researcher in identifying the more potent therapeutic components in honey.

Original Research Article

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND GC-MS ANALYSIS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS AND THEIR GROWTH PROMOTING EFFICIENCY IN Cirrhinus mrigala – A COMPARATIVE STUDY

Y. THANGADURAI, S. PUVANESWARI

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 24-33

Aquaculture has a significant impact on wholesome human food. These species contain a wide range of nutrients, such as proteins, lipids, and a number of minerals. The environment, immunity, and growth rate of the fish must be improved with mediating elements in order to achieve mass production while preserving the stability of aquaculture. The use of herbal treatments to strengthen immune response has been discussed in numerous studies. This study has focused on the effects of a few plants leaf extract, including neem(Azadirachta indica), thulasi (Ocimumsanctum) and thuthi (Abutilon indicum) on Cirrhinus mrigalagrowth rate. By performing a preliminary phytochemical screening and GC-MSanalysis, the entire leaf extract was described. The extract from the leaves of the three therapeutic plants contains more than 30 significant phytocomponents. A feeding trial was done to see how Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings responded to dietary leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica, Ocimum sanctum, Abutilon indicum, and combination extract. Given that herbs are a natural and risk-free strategy, adding such herbs to animal diets to enhance aquaculture appears helpful. A substantial increase in weight and growth rate was observed in all studies that examined growth rate metrics, such as specific growth rate and percent growth rate. This evidence supported the benefits of using specific herbs, particularly combined leaves extract, which has been shown to significantly promote growth in Cirrhinus mrigala.

Original Research Article

EFFECT OF SUB-LETHAL CONCENTRATION OF NICOTINE IN SURFACE WATERS ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS IN Labeo rohita FINGERLINGS

V. RAVICHANDRAN, C. ELANCHEZHIYAN, N. SURESH, G. CHANDIRASEGARAN

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 34-42

The nicotine concentration is increasing in aquatic ecosystems daily. This is due to anthropogenic activities like consuming nicotine-based products like cigarettes. Nicotine gets leached out of these spent or used cigarettes and can enter the aquatic system. This directly induces adverse effects on aquatic animals. During the four days of acute toxicity analysis, all the Labeo rohita fingerlings died when exposed to surface waters concentration of nicotine (9.34 mg/L). Hence, the current study aimed to evaluate the impact of a sub-lethal concentration of 0.93 mgL-1 of nicotine, i.e., 1/10th of surface waters concentration of nicotine (9.34 mg/L), on growth performance and biochemical markers in Labeo rohita fingerlings. The fish were exposed to 0.93 mgL-1 of nicotine for 60 days. During the experiment, growth performance and biochemical markers were noticed at different intervals, i.e., 15th, 30th, 45th and 60th days. The growth performance, such as net weight gain, length gain, specific growth rate and condition factor, significantly declined. In contrast, the feed conversion and feed efficiency ratios were remarkably increased compared to control fish. Further, the protein, glycogen and lipid levels notably declined, and increased amino acid content in the liver and muscle of sub-lethal concentration nicotine-exposed fish was observed. The results displayed that 1/10th of the surface concentration of nicotine can potentially reduce the growth and alter biochemical markers in Labeo rohita fingerlings.

Original Research Article

UNDERSTANDING THE FOOD AND FEEDING BIOLOGY OF CATFISH Sperata seenghala SYKES, 1839 FROM GOMATI RIVER OF TRIPURA, INDIA

SUKANTA BANIK, DIPAK DAS

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 43-50

Aspects of food and feeding biology of the Sperata seenghala of Gomati River of Tripura, a part of Eastern Himalayan hotspot region of India was studied over 12 months. The 176 fish (28.7 cm to 67.4 cm TL) specimens were examined for food composition analysis. Out of these, 21 (12.88%) had full stomach, 33 (18.53%) had empty stomach and 122 (68.58%) had partially-filled stomachs. The percent composition of various food items in stomach content was 7.5% of aquatic plant materials, 15.5% crustaceans, 29% aquatic insects, 6.7% molluscans, debris and detritus 5.3% and 36% fishes. Biomass of fish was highest in comparison to other food items. The alimento-somatic and hepato-somatic indices have every indication that S. seenghala is carnivorous and thus have intense liver activity. This study could render useful information on the food and feeding habits of the studied fish species and provide background biological knowledge for preparing its diet for future aquaculture practices.

Original Research Article

IMPACT OF BORDEAUX MIXTURE ON BEHAVIOURAL, HISTOLOGICAL AND SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF COMMON CARP (Cyprinus carpio L)

H. ANNAPURNESHWARI, MANOJ GODBOLE, K. M. NAVYA

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 51-57

Copper based compounds are used to control pests worldwide but they can be toxic to fish and other non-target organisms. So, it is essential to identify effective formulations with the lowest non-target toxicities. In this study the toxic effects of Bordeaux mixture on fingerlings of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) was studied. In the common carp fingerlings behavioural, histological alteration and biochemical variations were evaluated. The LC50 of Bordeaux on common carp was 0.04, 0.05, 0.06 and 0.07 mg/L. Fish mortality increased significantly with increasing concentration and time of exposure. Behavioural responses of fish samples exposed to Bordeaux mixture included uncontrolled swimming, erratic movements, loss of balance and swimming near the water surface with sudden jerk movements. The treated fingerlings showed histopathological alterations in their muscles and gill lamellae. Splitting of muscle fibre and muscle band degeneration of studied fish samples was observed in muscle tissue. The major changes observed in gills included ruptured gill epithelium, lamellar fusion, epithelial lifting and vacuolization at the tip of lamellae. The fungicide decreased the concentration of glycogen and protein in muscle and gill tissue compared to control samples. In conclusion, this study suggests that judicious use of fungicides should be practiced by farmers. Use of Bio pesticides and natural products should be encouraged to reduce the toxic effects of the fungicides.

Original Research Article

GREENER SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SELENIUM NANOPARTICLES FROM Acacia catechu

SOMAJI SHANKAR ANUSE, V. SUMATHI, C. UMA, D. SANGEETHA, P. SIVAGURUNATHAN, D. J. MUKESH KUMAR

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 58-71

Selenium is an important trace element for human health. Organic and inorganic selenium have different biological and physicochemical properties than selenium nanoparticles. We hoped to synthesize selenium nanoparticles from Acacia catechu extract. Synthesized nanoparticles are used for flavonoids, phenolic compounds, lowering sugar tests, etc. The Fourier Transform Infrared spectra are used to detect the reduced and stabilized functional groups of metabolites in an acacia bark extract and their likely role in selenium nanoparticle formation. The color change indicates biological sodium selenite reduction by Acacia catechu extract. Antioxidant properties of selenium nanoparticles are tested using 2,2 diphenyl 1 picrylhydrazyl, 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and lipid peroxide radical scavenging action. Our results show that manufactured selenium nanoparticles boost antioxidant activity. Selenium nanoparticles are effective radical scavengers that could be used in food and medicine.

Original Research Article

EFFECT OF SUB-LETHAL CONCENTRATION OF NICOTINE IN SURFACE WATERS ON ENZYMATICAL CHANGES IN TISSUES OF Labeo rohita FINGERLINGS

V. RAVICHANDRAN, C. ELANCHEZHIYAN, N. SURESH, G. CHANDIRASEGARAN

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 72-79

The current study aims to analyse the impact of the sub-lethal concentration of nicotine in surface waters on enzymatical changes in tissues of Labeo rohita fingerlings. The experimental fish Labeo rohita fingerlings were exposed to sub-lethal nicotine concentrations in surface water (0.93 mgL-1) for 60 days. Tissues (liver, gill and kidney) were harvested at different intervals (15, 30, 45 and 60 days of nicotine exposure) to analyze metabolic enzymes, TBARS and antioxidant enzymes. Further acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity was examined in the brain tissue. The metabolic enzymes such as AST and ALT activities increased significantly (p<0.05). In contrast, ACP and ALP activities declined in nicotine-exposed fish of liver, gill and kidney at every interval than in control fish. The peroxidation marker TBARS activity was significantly reduced, meanwhile the activities of enzymatic antioxidants such as SOD, CAT and GPx and non-enzymatic antioxidant GSH activities declined considerably in sub-lethal concentration nicotine-exposed fish tissues (liver, gill and kidney) when compared to control fish. Further, the activity of AChE also declined in the brain of nicotine-exposed fish than in control fish. The results indicate that exposure to the sub-lethal concentration of nicotine in surface water can cause an imbalance in the activities of metabolic enzymes, TBARS, antioxidant enzymes and AChE in fish.

Original Research Article

THE NATURALLY AVAILABLE PHYTO-PRODUCTS OF INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST ADULTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF HUMAN VECTOR MOSQUITOES

RENGASWAMY RAJALAKSHMI, JEGADEESAN VAIDEHI, KALIYAMOORTHY KRISHNAPPA

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 80-87

Globally, most of the research community’s consideration for the control of vectors has moved from synthetic chemical pesticides to naturally available phyto-products. In the present investigation, we attempted to evaluate the bio efficacy of various floral extracts and its derived major phyto-compounds against adulticidal activity with different concentrations against the adults of medically important vector mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The major phyto-chemical compounds of N. brachiata, L. crustacea and O. corniculata leaf extracts were analyzed with GC and Mass Spectroscopy. N. brachiata leaf methanol extract had a total of 10 bio-active compounds acquiring 100% and the major bio-active compounds were 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis(2-ethylhexyl) ester (31.03%) and phthalic acid, hexadecyl 2,3,4,5-tetrafluorobenzyl ester (1.86%). Therefore, L. crustacea leaf methanol extract had a total of 10 bio-active compounds acquiring 100% and the major bio-active compounds were 2-acetylamino-2-cyano-acetamide (22.3%) and Phosphorin, 2,4,6-tris(1,1-dimethylethyl)- (28.96%). Similarly, O. corniculata leaf methanol extract had a total of 15 bio-active compounds acquiring 100% and the major bio-active compounds were Succinic acid, 2-methylpent-3-yl pentafluorophenyl ester (18.95%) and 1,2-Cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, di(2-fluorophenyl) ester (19.91%). The efficacies of the phyto-products were assessed under laboratory conditions. The LC50/ LC90 values of leaf methanol extracts of N. brachiata, L. crustacea and O. corniculata and its derived major phyto-compounds 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis(2-ethylhexyl) ester, Phthalic acid, hexadecyl 2,3,4,5-tetrafluorobenzyl ester, 2-Acetylamino-2-cyano-acetamide, Phosphorin, 2,4,6-tris(1,1-dimethylethyl)-, Succinic acid, 2-methylpent-3-yl pentafluorophenyl ester and 1,2-Cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, di(2-fluorophenyl) ester were tested against adults of vector mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus of results were 84.82/168.78, 88.46/182.55, 92.30/174.63, 94.51/175.44, 96.42/174.84, 98.58/186.62 and 12.71/23.86, 11.23/22.82, 12.46/23.06, 12.34/23.37, 12.96/24.34, 12.89/23.85, 11.84/23.27, 12.36/23.79, 11.42/21.90, 11.34/21.93, 10.67/20.93 and 10.85/21.47 µg/ml, respectively. The outcomes of this present investigation well clearly indicated that the leaf methanol extracts of N. brachiata, L. crustacea and O. corniculata and its derived major phyto-compounds 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis(2-ethylhexyl) ester, Phthalic acid, hexadecyl 2,3,4,5-tetrafluorobenzyl ester, 2-Acetylamino-2-cyano-acetamide, Phosphorin, 2,4,6-tris(1,1-dimethylethyl)-, Succinic acid, 2-methylpent-3-yl pentafluorophenyl ester and 1,2-Cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, di(2-fluorophenyl) ester had the potential effects on selected medical pests Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The findings of outputs as possible role battle with Ae. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Further studies regarding the application selected phyto-products in the field application which will give the way for development of newer phyto-mosquitocide.

Original Research Article

IDENTIFICATION OF NOVEL DRUG/LEAD MOLECULE FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA TARGETING RGS4 GENE THROUGH IN-SILICO ANALYSIS

S. ANITHA KUMARI, ANITA K. PATLOLLA

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 88-100

Schizophrenia is a neuropsychiatric disorder that is caused by many factors including changes in the chemistry of the brain, structure of the brain, and genetic factors. The neuropathology of the disorder has been identified morphologically and physiologically through a number of parameters from a reduction in brain size and abnormalities in the neurotransmitter network affecting the brain to changes in the molecular composition of specific cell populations in the brain. Over a long period of time, clinicians and researchers have identified schizophrenia as a complex neurological genetic disorder as a result of the functionality of several susceptible genes. Various scientists are of the opinion that there are about 20 candidate genes that cause schizophrenia. Several genes like Dysbindin, Neuregulin, DAAO, G72, PRODH, COMT, and RGS4 have been proven to be the risk factors for schizophrenia disease. RGS4 was identified as a target gene for schizophrenia. Hence the present study was taken up to identify a Novel Drug/Lead Molecule from 12 selected drugs based on a bioinformatics approach for schizophrenia targeting the RGS4 gene. The genomics and proteomics approach of the RGS4 gene was carried out for nucleotide and protein sequences and the protein was modeled using SPDBV with 80% accuracy. The potential active site amino acids were predicted using molecular cavities based on energy and surface area and the protein was targeted using the best active site amino acids. The protein-ligand interactions were also performed using the Argus Lab engine with flexible docking. The data of the present study reveals that ziprasidone is showing maximum inhibition of the RGS4 gene among the 12 drugs selected for screening. It is thus concluded that ziprasidone with the lowest free energy and high affinity is the best inhibitor for the schizophrenia protein and hence it can be suggested for the treatment of schizophrenia.

Original Research Article

PHYTO-CONSTITUENTS OF CROTON BONPLANDIANUS AS ECO-FRIENDLY BIO-WEAPON AGAINST HUMAN VECTOR MOSQUITOES

RENGASWAMY RAJALAKSHMI, JEGADEESAN VAIDEHI, KALIYAMOORTHY KRISHNAPPA

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 101-109

The Croton bonplandianus various leaf extracts were assessed the presence of phytochemical in which predominant numbers occupied by high polarity solvent (methanol extract). ‘+’ denoted as presence of phytochemical group and ‘-’ denoted as absence of phytochemical group. The major phyto-compounds of Dihydro-pseudosolasodine and Methylsulfonic acid, 2,2,2-trichloroethyl ester were identified from C. bonplandianus leaf methanolic extract by using GC-MS analysis. The major phyto-constituents were tested by standard protocol with various concentrations (4-250μg/mL) against 3rd instars larvae of different vector mosquitoes Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus By GC-MS analysis, confirmed the presence of 15 phyto-compounds in which, Dihydro-pseudosolasodine (15.03%) and Methylsulfonic acid, 2,2,2-trichloroethyl ester (17.72%) were noticed as major phyto-constituent. The lethal toxicity (LC50/LC90) of C. bonplandianus leaf methanol extract and Dihydro-pseudosolasodine and Methylsulfonic acid, 2,2,2-trichloroethyl ester tested against 3rd instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus values were 78.48/178.68, 80.33/180.32, 11.46/19.90, 11.72/19.66, 10.66/19.06 and 10.71/19.78 µg/mL, respectively. C. bonplandianus leaf methanol extract and selected phyto-compounds were exposed with juvenile stage of medical vector which found the hyper toxicity at lower concentration. Our results, the C. bonplandianus phyto-pesticides achieved many folds topper toxic effects on medical vectors which provided eco-friendly approaches to environment.

Original Research Article

REPELLENCE EFFECTS OF RED CHILI AND BLACK PEPPER OLEORESINS AGAINST AGRICULTURALLY IMPORTANT SUCKING PESTS

R. RAMAKRISHNAN, T. SELVAMUTHUKUMARAN, NUSRAT IQBAL

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 110-114

A study was carried out to evaluate red chili and black pepper oleoresins’ repellence against Citrus psyllids (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama), Red spider mites (Tetranychus urticae Koch), Cotton aphids (aphis gosippi Glover) and Cotton mealy bug (Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley) at laboratory conditions. In filter paper half of the portion was treated with one ml of respective solution using pipette and air dried under room condition. After they placed into 80 mm petriplates.  Then the insects (15 nos ) were released into it and the repellency was recorded at 6 hrs interval. The results revealed that at 1% concentration, the red chili oleoresin possessed the highest repellence against aphids (100%), followed by red spider mites (86.66%) and psyllids (69.33%). The highest repellence (51.20%) in mealybugs was noticed only at the maximum concentration tested (5%).At 1% concentration, repellence was very minimal (25.33%). A similar trend was recorded in black pepper oleoresin also. Both the spice oleoresins had the highest repellence against cotton aphids. Phytotoxicity studies on 25 and 45 days old cotton plants revealed no symptoms at concentrations from 0.1 to 1%. At higher concentrations tested, some minor leaf and boll injuries appeared, and later, the plants recovered.

Original Research Article

ANTI-DIABETIC EFFECT OF Acacia catechu MEDIATED SELENIUM NANOPARTICLES

SOMAJI SHANKAR ANUSE, V. SUMATHI, C. UMA, D. SANGEETHA, P. SIVAGURUNATHAN, D. J. MUKESH KUMAR

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 115-120

Selenium nanoparticles have made their way into the field of biomedicine through their application as antioxidants, antidiabetic agents, anticarcinogenic agents, nutritional supplements, and pharmaceutical supplements. The objective of the current study is to assess any potential antidiabetic effects of selenium nanoparticles using Acacia catechu. The solution of the nanoparticles was centrifuged at 8000 rpm for 10 minutes, collected, twice rinsed with distilled water, dried at 600 ºC, and stored. Se NP concentrations of 100, 200, 300, and 400 L were preincubated at room temperature for 30 min with 400 L of an alpha-amylase solution (1 U/mL). Equal amounts of the enzyme and extract were swapped out for a sodium phosphate buffer that was kept at a pH of 6.9. At 540 nm, the reading was recorded. Three times the experiment was run. In order to calculate the percentage of inhibition, acarbose was utilized as a positive control. The findings of the present investigation showed that Se- NPs exhibited anti-diabetic effects that were comparable to those of the reference standard. At a concentration of 100 l, the alpha amylase enzyme was inhibited by 57.2%, which was noticeably equivalent to the usual acarbose employed. According to the results of the current study, selenium nanoparticles have an inhibitory effect on alpha amylase, which unintentionally treats diabetes mellitus by regulating blood glucose levels. They exhibit significant alpha-amylase inhibition in relation to acarbose. Se NPs could thus offer a potential replacement for traditional antidiabetic medications in the future. According to the research, the synthesized selenium nanoparticles were spherical and small. According to in vitro antidiabetic functions research, the particles exhibit increased levels of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory actions. Additionally, it was less cytotoxic and had stronger antioxidant activity. The greenly synthesised selenium nanoparticles have shown promise as a natural treatment for diabetic mellitus.

Original Research Article

PHOTOSENSITIVE EFFECT OF THE BIOCHEMICAL AND ECONOMIC TRAITS OF Bombyx mori L.

T. THANGA SUJI, M. THILSATH FATIMA QURAIZA, T. BABY DAYANA, D. DAYANA JEBAMALAR, J. P. JESPA

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 139-142

The silkworm is by nature very delicate and sensitive to environmental conditions. The ecological factors, chiefly temperature, humidity and light during rearing show significant effect on growth larvae and finally cocoon crop quality. Silkworms are photosensitive and they have a tendency to crawl towards dim light. They do not like either strong light or complete darkness. In this way, based on various exposures of light on the effect of biochemical content and economic traits of silkworm were recorded. Biochemical content such as protein is highly essential for insects. The intracellular transport of the silk protein is dependent on hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity of the amino acid residues of the heavy and light chain of the silk protein and the haemolymph is the only extracellular fluid of insects with diverse functions and serves as reservoir for the products required for every physiological activity of the insect body, thus changes in the composition of haemolymph reflect the physiological and biochemical transformations taking place in the insect tissue. In this way of study, effect of light on biochemical content such as protein and carbohydrate of haemolyph and silk gland are significantly increased. The protein content was high in the haemolymph (17.48%) when the larvae exposed to 5 watt light and silk gland (66.67%) in 3 watt exposure group but fat body (44.33 %) when the larvae exposed to 8 watt. The carbohydrate content of haemolymph (35.54 %), silk gland (12.85%) and fat body (57.26 %) were significantly increased in 3 watt exposure group. In this findings, biochemical content had direct relation to economic traits of B. mori. The cocoon characters such as cocoon weight (28.42 per cent), pupal weight (20.9 per cent), shell weight (71 per cent) and shell ratio (33.48 per cent) were significantly increased in the 3 watt exposed group.

Original Research Article

SCREENING OF AFRICAN AND FRENCH MARIGOLD GERMPLASMS AGAINST Tetranychus urticae KOCH (ACARI: TETRANYCHIDAE) UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS

KARUNA BAMEL, RACHNA GULATI, . KHUSHBU, MONIKA JANGRA, KESHAV BAMEL

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 277-287

The germplasms of African and French marigold were screened at Research Farm Area, Department of Horticulture, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana against the two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (TSSM) in the winter season from first week of October to first week of March, 2018. The germplasm tall orange African sheltering lowest mite population (9.82 mites/leaf) was marked as the least susceptible and Hisar Jafari-2 French with 32.21 mites/leaf was categorized as highly susceptible for T. urticae infestation. Mite population was recorded weekly and significantly higher number of mites was recorded on grown up leaves followed by tender and older leaves of marigold plants. Irrespective of the germplasm, the mite number was found to significantly increase with each observation period till the attainment of peak in population in the month of January (35.51 mites/ leaf) while their least population was recorded in the month of October (6.65 mites/leaf). In general, French germplasms were comparatively more susceptible to T. urticae infestation as compared to African germplasms.

Original Research Article

PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTI-BACTERIAL BACTERIOCIN ISOLATED FROM HOSPITAL ACQUIRED MULTI DRUG RESISTANT Staphylococcus aureus

K. BHARATHI BAI, S. S. SUDHA

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 288-306

Concerns for public health have been raised all over the world as a result of a significant increase in bacterial resistance to the antibiotics that are currently available. As a result, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have emerged as a promisingly novel class of infectious disease treatment options. The current study focuses on the isolation and purification of a bacteriocin from clinically Multi-Drug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA MRSA_1) that was acquired in a hospital including characterization. The ribosomally synthesized peptides have significant potential as an anti-bacterial peptide, and it was demonstrated that the bacteriocin has strong antagonistic activity against many pathogenic organisms. Ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis, Gel filtration chromatography, RP-HPLC, and SDS-PAGE were the initial methods used to purify it. A combination of LCMS analysis and Mass matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/MS) was used. The physio-chemical characterization of purified bacteriocin was studied using FT-IR, and XRD. The LCMS analysis of the RP-HPLC-collected active component revealed the amino acid sequence of the purified peptide (bacteriocin). After being subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography, a peak was discovered with a retention time of 5.330 minutes. The amino acid of bacteriocin was identified by LCMS, and the query sequence shared a match with the Staphylococcus aureus protein. In-silico molecular docking study investigated the significant evidence for the role of bacteriocin identified from Multi-Drug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus as an anti-bacterial agent. In conclusion, the bacteriocin found in this study may be a promising agent that should be further investigated for it’s cytotoxicity and in-vivo anti-bacterial activity in the future.

Original Research Article

A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF Drosophila melanogaster LARVA TO DIFFERENT OIL SAMPLES

ANAMIKA ADHIKARY, DEBAKSHI DEB

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 311-315

Larvae of Drosophila melanogaster are known to show attraction to wide variety of chemicals. In this study, the behaviour of third instar larvae of D. melanogaster to four commonly available oil samples, namely, mustard; coconut; almond and sunflower oil was studied by plate assay technique. Response Index (RI) was calculated for each of the oil samples. Results suggest that all there as: Coconut > Sunflower > Mustard and almond. Of all the oil samples, coconut oil displfour samples studied act as attractants to the larvae. RI in decreasing order of the oil samples aays the highest RI. This observation might be attributed to the chemical composition of the oil. This is a preliminary study to understand the chemotaxis behaviour of Drosophila larvae towards oil. Further, detailed studies are essential to have better insights.

Original Research Article

EFFECT OF GROWTH REGULATOR ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF BUTTON ROSE

S. SELVAVINAYAGAM, S. RAMESHKUMAR

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 355-359

A Field study entitled ‘Effect of Growth Regulator on Growth and Yield of Button Rose’ was carried out in a farmer's field near Hosur, Krishnagiri district during 2020-21. The experiment conducted in a randomized block design with three replication. i.e., GA3, NAA, and Tricontanal, along with amino acid and salicylic acid, were also applied with various different combinations, sprayed 30 and 45 days after pruning.The results revealed that Foliar application of (T7) 150 ppm GA3+ salicylic acid consistently registered the highest consistently registered the maximum plant height (110.36), plant spread (43.80 ), number of laterals plant-1 (46.80), number of leaves per plant (181.30), leaf area (42.60) and Chlorophyll (1.65)such as the number of flowers plant-1 day (1.61), days taken for first flowering (45.76) flower diameter (5.83), single flower weight (3.62), flower yield plant-1 day (5.83) was also recorded as the highest in the above treatment. It was followed by (T8), which recorded nest best on-bar values in these parameters. By considering the yield parameters it can be concluded that T7 - GA3 @ 150ppm + Salicylic Acid @ 100ppm was found to have the best effect on growth, flowering and yield parameters of button rose cultivated in open field condition.

Original Research Article

SECONDARY METABOLITES OF ANTAGONISTIC BACTERIAL STRAIN Streptomyces griseus KD1 EXERT ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTICANCER ACTIVITY AGAINST BREAST CANCER MCF-7 CELLS

RAJASRI CELLADURAI, SUMATHI VADAMALAI

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 393-401

Numerous types of bioactive compounds are produced in large quantities by marine microorganisms. In this work, the antagonistic marine bacterium strain Streptomyces griseus was isolated from soil samples taken from the beach into mangrove estuary region, and its unprocessed secondary metabolites were assessed for their potential antibacterial and anticancer properties. Using 16S rRNA sequencing study, the strong antagonistic bacterial isolate S. griseus was discovered. After being isolated from strain S. griseus using centrifugation and ethanol, the secondary metabolites were tested for antibacterial efficacy against bacterial pathogens of the respiratory tract using the agar well diffusion technique. This investigation indicated that the metabolic extract of the KD1 successfully reduced the development of clinical bacterial infections. Also confirmed concentration-dependent cytotoxicity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. When metabolic extract of the KD1 was administered, it effectively inhibited the growth of MCF-7 cell colonies, increased lipid peroxidation, and lowered antioxidant activity. The findings demonstrated that the KD1 metabolic extract had potent antibacterial and anticancer activities. Therefore, with further clinical testing, it is possible to develop effective antibiotics and anticancer medications for breast cancer using the secondary metabolites of the S. griseus KD1 strain.

Original Research Article

IMPACT OF HABITAT DEGRADATION ON BIODIVERSITY OF EARTHWORM IN RAEBARELI DISTRICT

GARIMA SINGH, TUNEERA BHADAURIA, AJAI KUMAR

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 402-414

The land-use pattern in the Raebareli district exhibits a gradient of increasing human-caused land-use intensification. Deforestation for agriculture causes agroecosystems to be left fallow in order to recover vegetation and enhance soil fertility. Due to extensive grazing pressure, a lack of plant cover, and soil erosion that is accelerated by a higher pH value brought on by sodicity, fallows have significantly degraded ecosystems. Using biological restoration techniques, agroecosystems have transitioned from being externally regulated to becoming an internally managed, sustainable ecosystem. Eutyphoeus nicholsoni, Eutyphoeus orientalis, and Metaphire anomala in the forest, successfully surviving there. Three species were still present in the mechanized agroecosystem; Eutyphoeus waltoni invaded and replaced Eutyphoeus orientalis due to the alteration in land use pattern from forest to agroecosystem. The fallow contained Eutyphoeus incommodus and Eutyphoeus nicholsoni. Earthworms could not thrive in the soil there because of the high pH and low nutrient value of the sodic land earthworm. As a result of the conversion of land from a forest to an agroecosystem, endemic species predominated over foreign species, and this pattern continued in fallows and reclaimed agroecosystems. Endogeic species dominated in the forest, but a change in land use caused a reduction in their population in agriculture, which allowed anacic species to take their position in the fallow. Simpson's diversity index was higher in the less disturbed reclaimed agroecosystem, whereas the earthworm diversity index declined as farming intensified.

Original Research Article

ANALYSIS OF ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY USING POWDERED CUTTLEBONE Sepia pharaonis EHRENBERG, 1831 AGAINST SELECTED PATHOGENS

M. BALASARASWATHI, M. I. DELIGHTA MANO JOYCE, S. MOHAMED RAMLATH SABURA, A. MUTHURAMAN

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 429-434

Sea food is regarded as a good source of animal protein since it had a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Cephalopods are considerably important a food resource as well as in scientific investigations. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antifungal activity of methanolic extract of powdered cuttlebone of Sepia pharaonis against five fungal strains such as, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Mucor, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigates using well diffusion method. The methanolic extract was active against Candida albicans, Mucor and Aspergillus fumigates at higher concentarion level and dormant against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. These results revealed that the methanolic extract of powdered cuttle bone possess relatively good antifungal activity.

Original Research Article

CAPTIVE BREEDING OF THE RECENTLY DISCOVERED SNAKEHEAD SPECIES Channa andrao BRITZ, 2013 BY HABITAT MANIPULATION

NIPEN NAYAK, SEUJ DOHUTIA, JYOTIRMOY SONOWAL, JOYLUXMEE DUTTA, SHYAMA PRASAD BISWAS

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 448-451

Captive breeding is considered as one of the most important aspects of the conservation of fish species. The breeding operation of many snakehead species is done using synthetic hormones, but no report is available on breeding by habitat manipulation without using hormones. Pairing among brooders is a common phenomenon in snakehead species. This article thus focuses on the captive breeding of Channa andrao following the pairing technique. Two pairs of brooders successfully bred in our experimental trial with the highest fertilization rate (85%) and hatching rate (86%) of fish of length-weight 10.33 cm and 11.05 cm in males and 11.23 g and 11.33 g in females. Suitable water parameters were maintained during the breeding period.

Original Research Article

EFFECT OF LEAD, COPPER ON GLYCOGEN CONTENT IN MUSCLE, LIVER, GILL, AND KIDNEY TISSUES OF FRESHWATER FISH Labeo rohita

SHUBHAM R. KHADE, PALLAVI M. PATIL, MAYURI B. SURYAWANSHI, SNEHA N. HOJAGE

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 452-457

Heavy metals harm the aquatic ecosystem by persisting in the environment and having the ability to bioaccumulate in aquatic species. Lead is a typical dangerous heavy metal with a very long biological half-life that is not biodegradable and is physiologically non-essential. The goal of the current study was to measure the amount of glycogen in Labeo rohita's muscle, liver, gills, and kidney after exposure to sublethal amounts of lead and copper for 4, 7, 15, and 30 days. The data showed a substantial drop in glycogen levels in the Labeo rohita experimental fish. Both the low concentration (26.426 mg/L) and the high concentration (75.467 mg/L) of muscle glycogen had decreased by a significantly significant amount (P 0.001) after 30 days compared to the control. The amount of hepatic glycogen (7.228 mg/g) was significantly (P 0.001) lower after 30 days compared to the control group. After 30 days of exposure, the reduction in gill glycogen content was found to be (0.689 mg/g) in high concentration and (1.2813 mg/g) in low concentration, in comparison to the control. Both the high concentration of renal glycogen (2.71 mg/g) and the low concentration of renal glycogen (3.16 mg/g) were found to be considerably lower (P 0.001) than the control at 30 days. The impact of poisonous Lead and Copper in some fish tissues was taken into account when evaluating the fish's response to a stressor. As a result, we can detect cadmium stress in fish by looking at their glycogen content.

Original Research Article

ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF PRUNETIN IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC NEPHROTOXIC RATS

JOSE VINOTH RAJA ANTONY SAMY, AMALAN VENKATESAN, V. K. BHUVANESHWARI, RENUKA MANI, VIJAYAKUMAR NATESAN

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 458-466

In the present study, we evaluated the protective impacts of Prunetin (PRU; 5-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-methoxy-4H-chromen-4-one / 5,4'-dihydroxy-7-methoxyisoflavone) altering plasma lipid peroxides and antioxidant in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephrotoxic (DN) rats. Wistar albino rats were given a single intraperitoneal (i.p) dosage of 45 mg/kg of STZ to cause diabetic nephropathy, which was then treated with Group-III, an effective dose of prunetin of 80 mg/kg. We examined the levels of body weight, blood glucose, insulin, lipid peroxidation products, and antioxidants in experimental rats. In STZ -induced diabetic rats, we observed an increased blood glucose level and reduced levels of insulin as compared to control rats. Whereas prunetin administration to diabetic nephrotoxic-induced rats resulted in significantly lower blood glucose level and increased the insulin levels as compared to DN rats. In diabetic nephrotoxic rats, prunetin treatment enhanced the antioxidant enzymes activity in the liver and renal tissues. Overall, the finding suggests that prunetin have significant an antioxidant and hypoglycemic activity in STZ-induced Wistar rats by scavenging free radicals thereby reducing the risk of diabetic complecations.

Original Research Article

LABORATORY EVALUATION OF THE ADULTICIDAL AND NYMPHICIDAL ACTIVITY OF Aspergillus niger In Bemisia tabaci (HEMIPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE)

ALYAA ABDUL-RIDHA HANASH, RANA JAAFAR ABED, ALAA NAJEE SALIH

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 467-475

Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), is a widespread polyphagous insect pest and a dangerous vector for many viruses that cause plant diseases. Farmers urgently need safe pesticides to protect their crops and plants, making biopesticide a good alternative to chemicals. Biopesticides are part of an integrated pest management program and offer a safer, more natural alternative to chemical pesticides. Since biocides were introduced, several pest management products have been released, some of which dominate the market. The current laboratory study tested the biological agent Aspergillus niger at three concentrations (0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 con/ml) to manage and reduce Bemisia tabaci population density in greenhouses and field crops. Laboratory tests showed that the two isolates were highly virulent against Bemisia tabaci nymphs and adults. Mortality was significantly different from controls in relation to isolate concentrations and time. Culture filtrate concentration and duration affected nymph and adult mortality. The 100% concentrations of both An1 and An2 were superior to the remaining concentrations, giving mortality in nymphs of B.tabaci 48.88 and 45.55 for isolates (An1 and An2) respectively, 42.21 and 36.66  for isolates (An1 and An2) respectively in adults stage. Effect of duration on post treatment mortality, highest mortality in nymphs and adults occurred 9 days after treatment, 74.44 , 56.66% in nymph and 53.33, 45.55 in adults for isolates (An1and An2) respectively. Concerning the interaction between concentration and duration, as is clear from Tables (1) and (2), the mortality was highest at 1.00% concentration. After 9 days of treatment, the isolates (An1, An2) achieved mortality 86.66, 80.0 in nymphs and 73.33%, 63.33% in adults, respectively. These findings demonstrate A. niger's biopesticide potential.

Original Research Article

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ZINC OXIDE NANOPARTICLES USING AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF Illicium verum AND ITS ANTIMICROBIAL APPLICATION

L. F. A. ANAND RAJ, A. SATHYA, B. CELSIA ELIZABETH, SNEHA KARTHIKEYAN

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 476-483

The study mainly focuses on the preparation and characterization of Zinc oxide nanoparticles using an aqueous fruit extract of Illicium verum. Zinc Oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by a biological method using the fruit extract of Illicium verum using Zinc acetate dehydrate in the presence of Sodium hydroxide. The synthesized Zinc Oxide nanoparticles were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Further applications of its antimicrobial activity were studied. SEM results reveal that the shape of Zinc oxide nanoparticles was spherical and the average size ranges from 20-40 nm. EDX analysis provides the elemental composition of Zinc and oxygen present in the ZnO nanoparticles. The weight percentage of Zinc and oxygen was found to be 62.59 and 37.41 respectively. Chemical bond formations were confirmed by using FTIR analysis. The antibacterial activity was performed against gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia) and gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilus) bacteria. Finally, the study concluded that can be used for the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles in a simple, cost effective and also the zinc oxide nanoparticles demonstrated riveting antimicrobial activity with both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Original Research Article

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIAL PATHOGENIC Bacillus sp. FROM THE Lethrinus lentjanin COASTAL AREA OF INDIA

VARGHESE ACKWINAS SWAKIN ANNAMMAL, DIVYA SUNDAR RAJ, THAVASIMUTHU CITARASU, SANDHIYA MAHA JOTHI, AUDRE PREENA MARIA SUNDAR RAJ, VIJITHKUMAR VIJAYAN, SUDHAKAR SIVASUBRAMANIAM

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 484-492

India stands at the sixth-largest position in the sector of marine and freshwater fisheries and the second-largest in the production of aquaculture. In view of the economic benefits, this highlights the importance of controlling infectious fish diseases that pose threat to the production of aquaculture. It was hypothesized lesions found on the dorsal scales in the Lenthrinus lentjan, could be the reason for the massive morbidity and mortality. Live surface floating fish samples with pathological signs were collected from offshore areas of the Pallam fishing village, located in the Kanyakumari District of Tamil Nadu, India in August 2013. Detailed histological studies confirmed the presence of similar bacterial infections in the tissues adjacent to the lesion sites. The pathogen was isolated and it was subjected to a series of biochemical and 16S RNA sequencing and it was identified the causative bacterial pathogen as Bacillus sp. The pathogen possessed sub-terminal endospore-forming nature and also it has strong hemolytic activities. The organism was named as Bacillus sp. MSU1400. Furtherly, the study was complemented with the Pasteur method, performed on white carp fishes, in vitro, for the confirmation of the pathogen. The pathogen was sensitive to ampicillin, cephalexin, and gentamycin but it was resistant to tetracycline.

Original Research Article

EFFECTIVE BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS AND FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS OF BROWN SEAWEED Spatoglossum asperum J. AGARDH

ANDREWS SEKAR, T. PALIN SATHYA SUDHA, AZHAGU MADHAVAN SIVALINGAM, GANESAN SIVAMANI, ARJUN PANDIAN

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 493-499

Brown seaweeds are a ridiculous source of diversity of bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, carotinoids, marine algae supply several external and internal ecological incomes. Spatoglossum asperum is a common brown seaweeds, rich sources of polyphenols, carotinoids vitamins, proteins and amino acids, polysaccharides, minerals, fibers. Its focused for phytochemical, physico-chemical parameter, fluorescence and Inorganic elements analysis, in results of phytochemical analysis presences of tannin, saponin, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and poly-phenol. Physicochemical parameter total ash 11.7%, moister content 1.23%, and extractive value 1.8%. Pphytochemicals secondary metabolites major role Fluorescence brown seaweed powder extraction different chemical phyto-components observed in visible light, short UV 254 nm, long UV 365 nm elimination of colouring observed. Phenolic, flavonoids compounds and are well known for their extraordinary bioactivities, including total antioxidants, scavenging and reducing. Concluded that the extraordinary medicinal property potential of the brown seaweed S. asperum, and also recommends brown seaweeds to be a part of daily diet.

Original Research Article

DETERMINED BIOCHEMICAL CONTENT IN Epinephelus malabaricus AND Lutjanus argentimaculatus ARE ECONOMICALLY IMPORTANT FINFISHES IN NAGAPATTINAM COAST, SOUTH INDIA

A. INDUMATHI, H. FARITHA BEGAM, GANESAN SIVAMANI, ARJUN PANDIAN

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 510-521

The finfishes Epinephelus malabaricus and Lutjanus argentimaculatus are cost-effectively imperative, so selected for divergent sizes, proximate compositions like crude protein, carbohydrate, lipids, ash and gross energy in relation to dissimilar seasons, size and sex groups with the vision of assessing the nutritive values and their % contributions, Indeterminates (IM), females (F), males (M) are selected for these studies. In the current studies results are showed different parameters; in E. malabaricus the utmost crude protein amount was observed (20-30 cm; 73.86%) post-monsoon from IM followed by same season in IM showed (10-20 cm; 73.85%), crude carbohydrate uppermost content was noticed in post-monsoon from F (50-60 cm; 72.15%) followed by same post-monsoon in M showed (50-60 cm; 71.31%). superior amount of lipid content maximum amount was observed in F (40-50 cm; 7.75%) in post-monsoon followed by same season in F (50-60 cm; 7.11%), the highest ash content was obtained from IM (20-30 cm; 8.12%) observed in post-monsoon followed by same season in IM (10-20 cm; 8.11%), highest cross energy was noticed in post-monsoon of F (50-60 cm; 18.39%) followed by same season in M showed (50-60 cm; 18.35%). In L. argentimaculatus premier amount of crude protein in IM was observed (10-25 cm; 75.05%) in summer followed by same season in IM showed (25-40 cm; 75.02%), crude carbohydrate high content was noticed from M & F (70-85 cm; 4.75%) in summer, followed by in F showed (70-85 cm; 4.45%) in monsoon and post-monsoon. Uppermost lipid content was observed from F in summer (55-70 cm; 7.21% & 70-85 cm; 7.20%) followed by post-monsoon in F was obtained (70-85 cm; 6.98%), utmost ash content was expressed in IM (10-25 cm; 7.25%) pre-monsoon followed by same season IM (25-40 cm; 7.05%), highest energy content was noticed in summer in F (70-85 cm; 18.34 MJ/kg) followed by same season M showed (70-85 cm; 18.04 MJ/kg), based on different parameters it concluded that selected finfishes are potentially functional for the human societies.

Original Research Article

THE EFFECT OF RELATIVE HUMIDITY ON THE SURVIVAL AND FECUNDITY OF ADULT AND NYMPHAL INSTARS OF Lohita grandis (LARGIDAE: HETEROPTERA) IN LABORATORY CONDITION

PRITI SAXENA

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 522-528

Lohita grandis (Heteroptera : Pyrrhocoridae) is a phytophagous bug, adult occur on a number of host plants (Trewia nudiflora, Mallatus phillippensis, Putronjiva roxburghii etc.).  In the current study, laboratory investigations were carried out  to determine the effects of various levels of relative humidity i.e 0%, 30%, 50%, 70%, 90% and 100% at constant optimum temperature 270C  on adult and nymphal instars of Lohita grandis. It is observed that the optimum level of relative humidity for the survival of adult Lohita grandis was 90±5%. Relative humidity of 90% was more favourable for male where 100% relative humidity was more favourable for female. Optimum relative humidity level for nymphal instars is 70% at which minimum duration and high percentage of moulting occurred.

Original Research Article

A BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE 100 MOST CITED ARTICLES IN TOP RANKED DENTAL JOURNAL

GADDE PRAVEEN, RAMA KRISHNA ALLA, SHAMMAS MOHAMMED, SIVAKUMAR ARUNACHALAM, SABARINATH PRASAD, MOHAN KUMAR PASUPULETI

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 529-536

Aim: To review the notable characteristics of the 100 most cited articles in dental journals with the highest impact factor according to journal citation reports 2021 by Clarivate analytics.

Methods: From the Web of Science database, the impact factor of dental journals was collected. Then, the top 100 cited articles from the top-ranked dental journal were retrieved from the Web of Science database up to June 2021 and cross-matched with Scopus and Google scholar. The following data were gathered for each article including the number of citations, title, year of publication, authors, country and institute, study design, the strength of supporting evidence, and area of research.

Results: Journal of Clinical Periodontology (JCP) had the greatest impact factor of 8.728 in the Dentistry, Oral Surgery, and Medicine category. The 100 most cited articles in JCP were published between 1974 and 2018, with the numbers of citations ranging from 2652 to 257 (Web of Science), 2754 to 207 (Scopus), and 4965 to 344 (Google scholar). Lindhe J tops the list with 29 articles followed by Socransky SS with 15. Gothenburg University, Sweden took the leading position with 27 articles followed by Forsyth Dental Centre, United States with 12. The list was represented mainly by articles with experimental study designs and level-I evidence. Surgical periodontal therapy was the most studied thematic area.

Conclusions: Our findings reveal trends and preferences in the research component of a top-ranked journal in dentistry. There is considerable evidence of exceedingly citable articles with superior research design and a high level of evidence being published.

Original Research Article

PROXIMATE COMPOSITION AND SEASONAL VARIATION IN SELECTED Scomberomorus guttatus AND Sardinella longiceps - FINFISHES WERE DETERMINED IN NAGAPATTINAM COAST, SOUTH INDIA

ELANGOVAN GOVINDARAJAN, RAMASAMY MARIAPPAN, ARJUN PANDIAN, GANESAN SIVAMANI

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 537-548

The finfishes Scomberomorus guttatus and Sardinella longiceps are economically important, so selected for dissimilar sizes, proximate concern to and gross energy in relation to dissimilar seasons, size and sex groups with the vision of assessing the nutritive values like carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, energy, ash,  and   their % contributions, males (M), females (F) and Indeterminates (IM) selected for these studies. In results, the S. longiceps in summer season showed highest amount of crude protein was observed (4-7 cm; 73.21%) from IM followed by in summer IM showed (11-13 cm; 72.79%), carbohydrate crude content was noticed from F (17-19 cm; 4.85%) in summer followed by in post-monsoon showed (17-19 cm; 4.55%) F. Lipid content maximum amount was observed in F (17-19 cm; 22.43%) summer followed by same size F (20.03%), in pre-monsoon highest ash content was in M (11-13 cm; 4.38%) observed followed by same season in IM (8-10 cm; 4.27%), highest energy was noticed summer in F (17-19 cm; 21.45%) followed by same F in post-monsoon showed (17-19 cm; 20.25%). In S. guttatus the highest amount of crude protein was observed (4-8 cm; 73.13%) in pre-monsoon IM followed by same season IM showed (9-12 cm; 73.02%), carbohydrate content was noticed from F (21-24 cm; 3.92%) in pre-monsoon, followed by same F showed (21-24 cm; 3.85%). The lipid content was observed from F in pre-monsoon (21-24 cm; 20.01%) followed by same season in M was obtained (17-20 cm; 19.02%), highest ash content was expressed in IM (9-12 cm; 5.12%) monsoon followed by same season IM (4-8 cm; 5.11%), highest energy content was noticed in pre-monsoon in M (21-24 cm; 19.95 MJ/kg) followed by same season F showed (21-24 cm; 19.55 MJ/kg), concluded that selected finfishes are nutritionally important.

Original Research Article

THE MOLECULAR STUDY OF LncRNA “NEAT2” FOR EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF TB IN POPULATION OF MADHYA PRADESH

VEENA SINGH, DEEPAK BHARTI

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 549-555

One of the deadliest infectious diseases in the world is tuberculosis (TB), a chronic disease brought on by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There is still no viable method for early screening, despite substantial advancements in tuberculosis detection methods and therapeutic strategies. Different cellular processes can hinder the growth of TB due to dysregulation of gene expression patterns connected to particular substances. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are molecules that have been found to control the expression of protein-coding genes and take part in processes like cell cycle control, gene silencing, and cellular differentiation. It has been discovered that dysregulation of lncRNAs is linked to a variety of illnesses, including cancer and infectious diseases. Therefore, it is encouraging that lncRNAs have been identified as potential molecular indicators and therapeutic targets for tuberculosis. In present study. Human blood samples from the TB patients and healthy individuals from Sidhi District of Madhya Pradesh were collected. Total RNA were extracted from blood samples of using TRIzol Reagent (Takara) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. cDNA were prepared using synthesis kit (Biorad), In the present investigation gene expression of LncRNA “NEAT2” and IFNG were assessed  in WBCs of TB Patients and Healthy individuals, using  Real Time PCR technique. This study reported Lnc RNA NEAT2 up-regulation, which reflect significant involvement of this LncRNA in pathogenesis of TB and it may be one of the potential marker for the early diagnosis of TB.

Original Research Article

IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF D-LIMONENE AND ROSMARINIC ACID BY HPTLC ANALYSIS OF BLACK CARAWAY OIL WITH ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES

SAMIKSHA SURENDRA AGARKAR, PALLAVI MANGESH PATIL, SIDHESHWAR LOBHAJI JADHAV

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 556-563

Due to their enticing citrus scent, the phenolic chemicals D-limonene (DL) and Rosmarinic (RA) acid have been widely employed in food flavoring, soaps, and perfumes in addition to the treatment of many disorders. Using the essential oils extracted from Black caraway oil, a simple and straightforward high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was created for the simultaneous detection of d-limonene and rosmarinic acid. Hexane, ethyl acetate, and formic acid, in the ratio of 20:19:1, v/v/v, were used as the mobile phase to generate the chromatogram on a silica gel aluminum plate 60 F254 (20 x 10 cm). The concurrent detection of DL and RA in commercial essential oils was successfully accomplished using the devised HPTLC approach. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) and mass spectrometry (MS) experiments were conducted on samples of d-limonene and rosmarinic acid in order to obtain the functional group and mass spectral information. The study data from the mass study were used to pattern the entire mass fragmentation process of DL and RA. The best and most effective molecular formula was used to suggest structures for each fragment. The antibacterial activity was studied with gram-positive bacteria; Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis), Staphylococcus aureus (S. coccus), and antioxidant activity with that of methanol.

Original Research Article

EFFECT OF THRIPS (PSUDODENDROTHRIPS MORI NIWA) INFESTED MULBERRY LEAVES ON BIOCHEMICAL AND ECONOMIC PARAMETERS OF SILKWORM, Bombyx mori L.

T. BABY DAYANA, M. RAMANI BAI, D. DAYANA JEBAMALAR, T. THANGA SUJI

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 564-568

Mulberry, (Morus alba L.) leaves are the predominant food source for silkworm, Bombyx mori L. that has been attacked by number of insect pests and pathogens. Among the sucking pests, thrips, (Pseudodendrothrips mori Niva) is a dominant pest causing enormous damages to mulberry leaves. Rearing of silkworm with thrips infected mulberry leaves affects growth, development and causes to reduce silk production. The present study deals with silkworm larvae fed with thrips infested mulberry leaves on biochemical and economic parameters. The biochemical parameters such as protein, lipid, carbohydrate and glycogen content, were studied in tissues of larvae like haemolymph, silkgland and fatbodies. The result showed that there was decreased in protein, lipid, carbohydrate, glycogen contents, when the larvae fed with thrips infested mulberry leaves than control. Maximum decrease (-53.80%) was noticed in the lipid content. There was also decreased in the economic characters such as cocoon weight (-20.26%), shell weight (-43.75%), shell ratio (-7.48%), filament length (- 30.19%), reliability (-29.28%) and denier (-25.22%)due to feeding of thrips infested mulberry leaves when compared to control.

Original Research Article

FATTY ACIDS AND MINERAL CONTENTS ANALYSIS OF SELECTED FINFISHES - Sardinella longiceps AND Scomberomorus guttatus

ELANGOVAN GOVINDARAJAN, GANESAN SIVAMANI, ARJUN PANDIAN, RAMASAMY MARIAPPAN

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 569-575

The marine fishes are extremely contributes to the delivery of fatty acids, macro and micro nutrients in normal food diet, finfishes Sardinella longiceps and Scomberomorus guttatus selected for fatty acids types and minerals composition of S. longiceps, S. guttatus skin muscles were analyzed. The fatty acid composition showed quantitative differences in the percentages of individual acids between the species. Total fatty acids included 41.29% of SFA in S. longicepts, followed by 36.83% in S. guttatus, MUFA content of fatty acids were showed 33.23% in S. guttatus followed by 22.53% in S. longiceps, PUFA fatty acids was high in S. longicepts 36.35%, followed by S. guttatus 28.43%. The minerals (macro, micro and trace mineral) content was estimated, highest amount of sodium content was estimated 432 mg/100 g dry weight basis in S. guttatus followed by in S. longiceps 323 mg/100 g, elevated amount of potassium content from 1251 mg/100 g in S. guttatus followed by in S. longiceps 639 mg/100 g, calcium level uppermost in S. longiceps noticed 269 mg/100 g followed by 167 mg/100 g. Concluded fatty acids, minerals are involved for growth and developments of living beings.

Original Research Article

MORPHOLOGIC CHARACTERS OF AN ISCHNOCERAN LOUSE, Goniodes dissimilis (DENNY, 1842) (INSECTA: PTHIRAPTERA: ISCHNOCERA) USING SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

AFTAB AHMAD, GAURAV SHARMA

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 576-581

In this paper, the morphological characters of an ischnoceran louse, Goniodes dissimilis (Denny, 1842) infesting Domestic fowl, Gallus gallus domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758) was studied through Scanning Electron Microscope.   In Odisha, G. dissimilis was discovered for the first time on Gallus gallus domesticus. The study indicated that the taxonomic studies on the phthirapteran fauna of G. g. domesticus deserved further investigation.

Original Research Article

INFLUENCE OF MICRONUTRIENTS FORTIFIED MULBERRY LEAVES ON LARVAL GROWTH AND COCOON PARAMETERS OF MULBERRY SILKWORM, Bombyx mori L

D. JEBA JINI, M. RAMANIBAI, M. THILSATH FATIMA QURAIZA, J. P. JESPA

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 582-588

The present study was conducted to know the effect of micronutrients on the growth and cocoon characters of silkworm, Bombyx mori L. The mulberry leaves (Morus alba) were fortified with minerals such as, zinc sulphate, copper sulphate and ferrous sulphate at different concentrations (5,10,15,20 and 25 ppm) and fed to the silkworm. Among these five concentrations tested , it was observed that the zinc sulphate at 15 ppm, copper sulphate at 10 ppm and ferrous sulphate at 20 ppm registered higher mature larval weight, effective rate of rearing, cocoon weight, shell weight, shell ratio and filament length than the control and other treatments.

Short Communication

MANAGEMENT OF HIP DISLOCATION IN EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT

SAAD SALEH ALGHUNAYMI, MOHAMMED HAMOUD ALKHALDI, ALKHALDI, MOHAMMED AMID S., ALMARI, MUSAAD MOHAMMED N., ALRUWAILI, RAYAN KHALAF I., ALHASSAN, OMAR ABDULAZIZ A., ALENZI, OSAMA MOHAMMED F., ALMOALLEM, SALEH ABDULLAH S., ALZAHRANI, ABDULLAH MOHAMMED A.

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 164-169

Hip dislocations following trauma are a common occurrence in the emergency room. Since the hip is a ball and socket joint with concomitant muscular and ligamentous attachments, it often takes a large amount of force to dislocate a hip. Due to the needed force, hip dislocations frequently come together with additional serious injuries. 90% of the time, hip trauma appears as a posterior dislocation when detected because the anterior ligaments are stronger. The rectus femoris, gluteal muscles, and short external rotators make up dynamic muscular support. 95% of patients who had a hip dislocation following a car accident also had an accompanying injury that needed hospital treatment. Therefore, a thorough neurologic and musculoskeletal evaluation with further x-rays or CT scans for assessment is required in cases with native hip dislocation. Standard AP (anteroposterior) scans of the pelvis often show hip dislocations clearly. However, a cross-table lateral of the injured joint is often included in comprehensive imaging. Hip dislocations can be more difficult to reduce than other types of dislocations, and most patients need procedural anaesthesia to make the reduction easier. Before considering surgical reduction, experts advise making up to three closed reduction efforts. However, 10% of hip dislocations may not be treatable in the emergency room and require surgical reduction under general anaesthesia.

Short Communication

OVERVIEW ON ROLE OF PRIMARY CARE IN MANAGEMENT OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

NISREEN OMAR ASRAF, ABDULLAH WALEED BORMAH, MARYAM BAKR ALHUMUD, ABDULBARI ABDULKHALIQ M FELEMBAN, HASHIM MAHFOUZ A. ALQURASHI, MOHAMMED HISHAM BARDESI, OHOUD OWAYEDH A. ALMUTAIRI, AMEERA AHMAD M ALHAWSAWI, ABDULHAKEEM, ADHWAA SALEH A., ALQURASHI ،MAY AWWADH O., ABDULLAH ADIL S KAMAL, ALSADI, AFNAN SULAIMAN H., FATIMA MOHAMMED A ALABBASI

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 170-176

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterised by the presence of kidney damage or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Patients with more advanced stage 3 or stage 4 CKD experience a higher incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. Because chronic kidney disease is a growing health concern, family physicians must be equipped to care for this unique patient population. Practice recommendations encourage proactive care of cardiovascular risk, the side effects of metabolic bone disease, and anaemia in these individuals as well as surveillance for increasing kidney disease. Primary care physicians (PCPs) are on the front lines of identifying and treating CKD as early as possible. However, the majority of PCPs frequently miss the existence of CKD. Additionally, the majority of patients with stages 3 and 4 CKD are not co-managed by nephrologists, despite the fact that increasing nephrologists' engagement in the care of these patients has been associated with improved dialysis-free survival. Early detection and treatment of these issues can stop the onset of subsequent sequelae, thus they shouldn't wait till nephrology is involved. This patient population also need appropriate counselling and health maintenance, both of which should be provided by the family doctor overseeing the patient's care.

Short Communication

MALARIA PARASITE STATUS IN THE STATE OF UTTAR PRADESH BETWEEN 2018 AND 2022

ARVIND NATH

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 360-364

Background: To the best knowledge of the author, there is no report on the current status of Malaria in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. This study is an attempt in that direction.

Materials and Methods: The study design included an analysis of the 2017 and 2018 annual reports as well as the website of the of the National Centre for Vector-Borne Diseases Control (NCVBDC).

Results: Bareilly District in Uttar Pradesh had a low Annual Parasite Incidence (API) of Malaria of 0.06 in 2017 which increased to 7.32 in 2018.

Conclusions: If interventions like the treatment of asymptomatic carriers take place, it is expected that the API in this district and the entire state will come down quickly.

Review Article

REPRESENTATIVE EYE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVALENCE IN SAUDI ARABIA

NISREEN OMAR ASRAF, MOHAMMED IBRAHIM ALSAEED, AFNAN MOHAMMED SHAYBAH, ZAINAB ABDULMAJEED AHMAD ALMUBARAK, ALI ABDULLAH ALGHAMDI, NADA ADEL SAGR, AHMED ABDULLAH ALGHAMDI, ASMA FAISAL ALGHAMDI, FAHD SAUD A ALMESNED, GHADEER HASSAN K ALGHAZWI, ABDULLAH YAHYA ZILAY, ABDULMAJEED MOHAMMAD S. ALIBRAHEM, ABDULRAHMAN YAHYA SUMAYLI, RIAM SALEH ALKHAMIS

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 121-127

Many patients with symptomatic eye conditions present initially to their primary care physician. Eye issues account for 2-3% of all primary care office visits. Knowing how to respond when these patients come is critical for the family physician, as is knowing when to refer them to an ophthalmologist for additional care. Family doctors should be able to spot eye disorders that can cause vision loss and necessitate an immediate referral to an ophthalmologist. A comprehensive history and physical examination are essential in reaching a diagnosis and determining the severity of the eye problem. Visual changes, length of symptoms, presence or absence of a foreign body, history of trauma or recent eye surgery, and concomitant symptoms such as a headache, nausea, or ocular discharge should all be addressed in the history. Almost 50% of all eye disorders presented to a family physician. Comprehensive treatment of such conditions can often be provided in the primary care setting. Patients with persistent or severe conditions, particularly those involving foreign bodies and corneal abrasions due to high-velocity injuries, should be referred for immediate care by an ophthalmologist. This review aims to review most prevalent eye complaints in primary health care centers in Saudi Arabia.

Review Article

MANAGEMENT OF PENETRATING WOUNDS OF ABDOMEN, A REVIEW

HASHEM BARK AWADH ABOOD, ABDULLAH AWON A. ALSALOOLI, ATHEER HAMAD SALEEM ALATAWI, MOFAREH MOHAMMAD ALQAHTANI, MOHAMMED ALI HASSAN ZAREI, ABDULAZIZ JAMAL S. BATOOG, MOHAMMED NOUH A. ALMOHAMMEDSALEH, NOUF MOHAMMED A. ALAQEL, FATEMA MAJEED ALMESHKHAS, MESHARI IBRAHIM A. ALAYSHAN, SAUD YAHYA MOHAMMED SOMILI, HANIN SAAD ALSHAMMARI, SAMAR YAHIA ALSAYED ABDALLAH

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 128-138

The small colon, big bowel, liver, and intra-abdominal vasculature are the most often injured organs in penetrating abdomen wounds. The treatment of individuals with penetrating abdominal has evolved during the past few years. The best way to treat abdominal stab wounds is still debatable. The objective is to locate injuries and treat them in a way that is both safe and economical. Local wound exploration (LWE), diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL), laparotomy, and computed tomography (CT) imaging are all common evaluation procedures. It has been demonstrated that clinical practice guidelines enhance healthcare delivery. Although they are rare, anterior abdominal stab wounds provide a problem for trauma management in both rural and urban areas. These clinical practice recommendations place a lot of emphasis on choosing the diagnostic and therapeutic methods that are the most trustworthy, safe, effective, and affordable. The guidelines will include evidence-based suggestions for treating patients who present to both rural and urban hospitals with anterior abdominal stab wounds. In this article we explain the types of the abdominal stab wounds and state the approaches which can be used to manage the abdominal stab wounds and the followed guidelines for ideal management.

Review Article

INVESTIGATING THE PHYSIOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE AND HYPOTHYROIDISM

MOHAMMED S. HUSSEIN, BAYAN MUJAHID M KABY, HAJAR YOUSIF ALYOUSIF, SALEM ALI AL MARRI, AHMAD ABDULAZIEM S. ALIBRAHIM, MALAK BASSAM ALRASHEED, ABDULAZIZ MOHAMMAD ALAIBAN, WADEEAH JAFAR ALMANASSIF, SHAHID ABDULLAH ALMAHDI, YAZEED FAHAD ALGHULAYQAH, MANAR ABDULWAHAB ALABDULSALAM, ABDULLAH MOHAMMED ALASSIRI, ABDULAZIZ ALI AL-THABET

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 143-151

Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, which are thyroid conditions that are extremely prevalent throughout the world, predispose to CVD in general and CAD in particular. This is especially important for people who have hypothyroidism. Heart failure progression risk and the frequency of coronary events are both raised by overt and subclinical hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormone abnormalities are a common complication of heart disease, especially ischemic heart disease, and should be taken into consideration. In actuality, it is necessary to consider low thyroid hormone levels as a cardiovascular risk factor. Regarding ischemic heart disease, thyroid hormones impact left ventricular structure, function, and geometry in the late post-myocardial infarction stage. Cardio-protection is the new goal of therapies to reduce infarct size and stop the development of heart failure following an acute ischemic event in order to enhance cardiovascular outcomes. Through TR1 binding, TH replacement therapy administered soon after myocardial infarction (or even when delayed) may enhance cardiac function. In this review we will look at the relationship between hypothyroidism and ischemic heart disease.

Review Article

CARDIOGENIC PULMONARY EDEMA IN CRITICAL CARE

FAHAD BAHAIDARAH, ABDULLAH SAUD ALSHAMMARI, ABDULAZIZ AYED ALSHAMMARI, OSAMA MOHAMMED JABBARI, ABDULELAH DULAYM ALSUHAYMI, FATIMA HUMADAN AL-OJAFI, RASHED ABDULAZIZ BOSHUSHAH, MOHAMMED DREES ALHERZ, ABDULLAH SAAD ALSHALAWI, OMAR MOHAMMED ALGHAMDI, AHMED SAAD ALZAHRANI, H. AL ZARA, JAWAD MUBARAK, Y. BARNAWI, ENAS MOHAMMED

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 152-163

The pathobiology and classification of pulmonary edoema are more complex than the previous dichotomy of hydrostatic vs. permeability. The mechanisms of alveolar fluid clearance and the factors that influence the clearance rate are being studied thoroughly in order to develop therapeutic strategies. Patients require early oxygenation and ventilation stabilization, preferably with high-flow nasal cannula oxygen or noninvasive ventilation, while the diagnostic cause is quickly sought with echocardiography and other testing. Treatments must begin as soon as possible while evaluation continues and requires multimodal intervention. Diuretics, possibly morphine, and frequently nitrates, are used to treat cardiogenic pulmonary edema. This review summarizes current knowledge of the pathophysiology, causes, and treatment of cardiogenic pulmonary edema.

Review Article

IMMUNIZATION COVERAGE AND HESITANCY IN SAUDI ARABIA

NISREEN OMAR ASRAF, ABDULATIF MAJED ALBASSAM, FAISAL KHALID ALABDULWAHAB, ABDULAZIZ MOHAMMED ALOMAYSH, SAUD ABDULRAHMAN A. ALZAHRANI, MSHARI AHMED ALASSAF, YOUSEF HAMOUD ALMUTAIRI, YASSER ZAID KHALAF ALKHALAF, FAISAL ABDULLAH ALMUZHIR, FAISAL MAJED ALBASSAM, ADBDULLAH ALI AL-YAHRI, ALHALAL, MOHAMMED HUSSAIN A, AYAT HUSSAIN ALI AL MUTAWA

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 224-229

One of the greatest contributions to public health is vaccination. The majority of affluent nations have high rates of childhood vaccination, indicating that vaccination is still largely regarded as a public health policy in these nations. But there might be many individuals who are under-vaccinated. The rise of VPD outbreaks, such as measles, poliomyelitis, and pertussis, and under- or non-vaccinated communities have been linked in several nations. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified vaccine hesitancy as one of the top 10 health hazards for 2019. Recently, there have been reports of vaccine reluctance in Saudi Arabia. Currently, the need for awareness campaigns about the benefits of vaccination is needed more than ever. In this review we will be looking at immunization hesitancy in Saudi Arabia, its definition, factors, and possible solutions.

Review Article

HASHIMOTO THYROIDITIS IN PAEDIATRIC POPULATION- AN OVERVIEW

AHMED ABDELSAMIE FADL, BARAAH ATEF MADANI ASHGAN, MUNAHI LAHIQ ALSUBAIE, ZAHRA ALI HABIB AL MUAILU, ABDULAZIZ ABDULRAHMAN A ASIRI, ZAHRA ABDULAZIEM S ALIBRAHIM, EMAN ABDULLAH ALGHAMDI, ABRAR HASSAN MOHAMMED ALAMRI, MARYAM ABDULHADI MIRZA, WAJD AHMED ALJOHANI, MJD MAZEN A ALANAZI, LULUH NASSER ALNAJDI

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 245-251

The most frequent cause of goitre and acquired hypothyroidism in children and teenagers is Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). An imperfection or error in immunoregulation leads to a cascade of events that develops from thyroid lymphocyte infiltration to thyroid follicular cell damage caused by T cells and cytokines and apoptotic cell death. Approximately 70% of illness risk is linked to genetic predisposition, with environmental variables also contributing to disease onset in vulnerable individuals. The main reasons for referral in children and adolescents with HT include goitre, hypothyroid symptoms, and outcomes that occur while treating separate disorders or for high-risk groups. Children and adolescents with HT may not have any symptoms. Thyroid hormone replacement is the preferred medical approach for treating Hashimoto thyroiditis. Levothyroxine sodium, taken orally, is the preferred medication, typically for life. To prevent insufficient absorption, it shouldn't be administered along with calcium or iron supplements, aluminium hydroxide, or proton pump inhibitors.

Review Article

AN OVERVIEW ON HEREDITARY AND ACQUIRED HYPERCOAGULABILITY

MOHAMMED SALAH HUSSAIN, SUMYA HASSAN DAWS, ESSA IBRAHIM ALHAZMI, MANSOUR ABDULRAHIM JAN, SAHAD SAMI GHAMRI, KOUTHER MUTLAQ O. ALHUDIRES, OSAMAH ABDULAZIZ A. ALHASSAN, FAHAD AMJAD A. BIN HUSSAIN, ABDULLAH AMJAD A. BIN HUSSAIN, ADAWI, ZAINAB Y. NASSER, ADAWI, YAHYA AHMED M., ALQAHTANI, ABDULAZIZ KHALID A.

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 262-270

A typical definition of hypercoagulability is the predisposition to develop venous thromboembolism due to an underlying hypercoagulable state caused by hereditary or acquired blood coagulation or fibrinolysis problems. Clinical signs of hypercoagulability can be fatal or extremely damaging. About 80% to 90% of patients can have hypercoagulability diseases accurately recognised. Determining the origin of hypercoagulability may influence the kind and length of treatment for the accompanying thrombosis. As a result, hypercoagulability is not a single, unified disease process but rather a collection of risk factors that may or may not lead to thrombosis, depending on the severity and number of risk variables as well as environmental exposures. The former includes prothrombotic polymorphisms in the genes encoding for factor V (i.e., factor V Leiden) and prothrombin, as well as shortages of natural anticoagulants such antithrombin, protein C, and protein S. It also includes elevated values of clotting factors (particularly factor VIII). The latter problems mostly include hyperhomocysteinemia, acquired elevations of coagulation factors or acquired reductions of natural inhibitors, malignancy, and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

Review Article

FISH LIVER OIL: OMEGA-3 FATTY ACID AND HUMAN HEALTH

SOUVIK TEWARI, SHRADDHA VAISHNAV, SUNANDA BISWAS, RANAJIT KUMAR KHALUA, RITUPARNA CHAKRABORTY, APARUPA CHAKRABORTY

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 307-310

A significant source of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids is fish oil. These elements are absolutely necessary in human diet. Since it cannot be manufactured by the human body, it must be obtained through diet. It shields us against serious heart conditions, cancer, diabetes, mental illness, arthritis, and a host of other health issues. Thus, fish oil benefits us in a number of positive ways. The advantages of Omega-3 fatty acids for health are outlined in this review paper.

Review Article

OVERVIEW ON PREVALENCE OF DEPRESSION AMONG ADULT OBESE PATIENTS

NAJLAA MOHAMMAD ALSUDAIRY, ALZAHRANY KHALID SAEED R., SADEEL FAHAD DAGHISTANI, MOHAMMAD SALEH AL SAMAANI, AMJAD ABDULLAH M. ALKHAWAJI, MOHAMMED FALAH ALHARBI, WAFA ABDULLAH MOHAMMED ALBATI, LAMA ABDULLAH M. BINMOHAMMED, ABDULELAH ABDULLAH H. ARZOUN, MAZYAD HAMED M. ALMUTAIRI, IBRAHIM ABDULAZIZ ALBULAYHID, AMAL ABDULMOHSEN ALHARBI, ABDULLAH ADEL A. ALNAIEM, HUSAM FOUAD K. BARRADAH

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 316-332

Obesity and depression are both common public health problems, however research on their association is conflicting. Some evidence point to strong links between depression and obesity, as well as the linked prevalence of both conditions. Depression is becoming more common, which predisposes people to considerable functional impairment as well as an increased risk of suicide and concomitant physical health problems. BMI and depression are thought to be related; however, the impacts of depression on body image have not been established from the standpoint of socioeconomic position, which has been regarded a key risk factor for the development of depression. Many epidemiological studies, clinical studies, and meta-analyses support the link between mood disorders and obesity in relation to various conditions such as depression severity, obesity severity, gender, socioeconomic status, genetic susceptibility, environmental influences, and adverse experiences. Immune and endocrine systems, as well as psychological and social factors, are thought to be involved in the two illnesses. As a result, the study was developed to assess the prevalence of depression in adult obese individuals.

Review Article

HEAVY METAL TOXICITY, BIOACCUMULATION AND OXIDATIVE STRESS IN FRESHWATER FISHES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

AAREFA JAN, SUCHITRA BANERJEE, RAJENDRA CHOUHAN

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 333-349

Contamination by heavy metals is a significant concern for the environment owing to their cytotoxicity, endurance, biosorption, as well as biomineralization. Our ecosystem may be contaminated by heavy metals from a multitude of both anthropogenic and natural sources. The major anthropogenic sources of heavy metals are commercial, industrial and agricultural processes; the utilization of fossil fuels and gasoline; waste incinerators; mineral extraction; volcanic eruptions; and the degradation of metal-bearing rocks, the use of chemical inputs in tanneries, textiles, and cut flower industries among many other things. These heavy metals mobility into the water bodies affects the physicochemical properties of the water, endangering aquatic species. When a fish consumes food that has accumulated metals, the gastrointestinal organs, outer skin, and gills are indeed the primary entry points for toxic metals. The most frequent heavy metal pollutants that severely damage fish and have an impact on human health include aluminium, cadmium, chromium, nickel, arsenic, copper, mercury, lead, and zinc. These pollutants were also characterized as systemic toxicants. At modest levels of exposure, each of these heavy metals induces organ dysfunction, and the US Environmental Protection Agency and the International Agency for Research on Cancer have characterized them as oncogenic. The key chemical process underlying metal cytotoxicity is the production of peroxidation. Stress impairs regenerative capacity, damages tissues or organs, lowers the immune response, and results in morphological defects. The abundance of protein content found in fish, along with its high vitamin and fatty acid omega-3 content encourages people to eat fish as a main source of nutrients. As a result, built-up toxic substances in fish muscles are easily transferred to human’s biotransformation, where they have adverse effects that hasten the development of many disorders. As a result, it's indeed vital to explore specific causes of toxic metals as well as associated hazardous impact on fish production in order to implement the laws and legislation pertaining to their conservation in the water habitats, as well as to preserve human existence. The explanations addressed in this research are numerous and varied. For such grounds, this study was produced to enhance our knowledge of heavy metals involvement inside the ecosystem, hazardous mechanisms, including detrimental consequences in fishes.

Review Article

ROLE OF FAMILY MEDICINE IN CANCER PATIENT CARE: A REVIEW

NISREEN OMAR ASRAF, FARAH NAJEH ALSHAMMARI, SARAH MOHAMMED M ALJAZAERY, NUJUD MOHAMMED ALKHERAIJI, ALI HASSAN ALBAYAT, ABDULLAH MOHAMMED ALWADAI, ALI ABDULAZEEM HABEEB, MOHAMMED KHALID ALGHAMDI, ABEER ALI M ALSUBHI, SHROOG KHASHMAN ALSHAMMARI, ABLAA MUBARAK OBAID ALKORBI, ZAINAB ABDULMOHSEN ALMUALLEM, DAFER ABDULRHMAN DAFER ALSHEHRI, AHMAD IBRAHIM ABALKHAIL, LAMA GHASSAN ABDULLAH

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 350-354

According to one definition, Family Medicine is a specialty that provides the provision of ongoing, comprehensive medical treatment to patients within the setting of their families and communities. Acute and chronic care, identification of family and social needs, long-term support, epidemiologic awareness, and treatment of unexplained illness are all included in continuing whole-patient care. This review aimed to summarize the updated evidence considering the role of Family Medicine in the care and management of cancer patients. PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, EBSCO, SCOPUS, Wiley, and Cochrane Library were searched. Study articles were screened by title and abstract then a full-text assessment was implemented. Family Physician (FP) plays a crucial part in providing care for a patient with cancer. There have been many different roles for doctors identified, and these responsibilities differ greatly depending on whether the practice takes place in an urban or rural clinical setting. Alongside surgical, medical, and radiation oncology specialists, FPs commonly provide care for patients with breast and gastrointestinal cancer. They also work with gynecologic, hematologic, and paediatric cancer patient populations. The management of treatment-related physical and psychosocial side effects, the provision of follow-up care for cancer survivors, and palliative medicine are examples of typical tasks and responsibilities. In addition, the FP support clinical trials, research focused on genetics, and high-risk population cancers.

Review Article

DRUGS FROM MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS AND ITS PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES

S. SIVAKRISHNAN, N. SRINIVASAN

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 365-368

Marine drugs are extremely important in pharmacology, whether directly or indirectly. In recent years, the study of drugs derived from marine natural resources has experienced a rebirth. Based on contemporary medical theory, marine pharmacology is a novel area of pharmacy that studies marine natural substances and develops them into pharmaceuticals to treat disease. It is a distinctive course that covers pharmaceutical formulations as well as marine natural chemicals and their pharmacological effects. An array of taxonomically diverse algae, fungi, bacteria, seaweed, mangrove plants, and other planktons make up the marine ecosystem. Secondary metabolites with various structures and pharmacological activities are abundant in marine organisms. The recent increase in the number of patents published justifies the importance of this study for identifying new entities as sources of therapeutic agents. The new compounds are said to have anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties. Marine pharmacology is a brand-new area of cross-disciplinary study that calls for a thorough understanding and practical application of many different fields of knowledge. Therefore, this review presents background data on recent advances in marine pharmacology and emphasizes the subjects that need further study.

Review Article

THERAPEUTICS ROLE OF Naravelia zeylanica AND THEIR ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS IN DISEASE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT

B. UMARANI, K. SARAVANAN, A. AMEENA BEGAM

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 369-374

Humans are highly close to their environments from the beginning of their lives and they use the substances as food and medicines. Usefulness and awareness of medicinal plants are helps to prepare food and also as a medicine through the realization of some trial and error. Plants are the main source of raw materials for treating various kinds of diseases from ancient times. Nowadays, the safety, effectiveness, and quality of the usage and production of medicinal plant based drugs in developing countries. A huge amount of people in both developing and developed countries depend upon medicinal plants and their derived products/ substances to maintain their life without health issues and treat illnesses. Herbs which are traditionally used for medicine are receiving great significance in the health care system. Naravelia zeylanica from Ranunculaceae family is used to treat various kinds of diseases in Ayurveda such as dermatopathy, colic inflammation, rheumatalgia, helminthiasis, leprosy, odontalgia, ulcers, and wounds. The present review focused on the pharmacological activities of Naravelia zeylanica.

Review Article

PREVALENCE AND MANAGEMENT OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS

NAJLAA MOHAMMAD ALSUDAIRY, ELAF ABDULRAHEEM ABDULRAHMAN ALGHURAIBI, KHOWLA MOHAMMED R. ALGETHAMI, ABDULRAHMAN AHMED M. ASIRI, ABDULLAH SULAIMAN ALQEFARI, HASSAN SALEM HASSAN ALSHARYAH, MOHAMMED AHMED HUMEYED, DINA GHURMULLAH M. ALZAHRANI, ZAINAB ABDULJALIL ALMANSUOR, AHMED SALMAN ALMEGDAD, ALMISBAH, MAHDI HASSAN A., SHURUQ ABDULLAH S. ALBALAWI, MUSTAFA YAHYA HUSSAIN NAJMI, ABDULJALIL ALMARZOOQ, KAWTHAR FAWAZ ALHAMWAN

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 375-386

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a polygenic illness that affects many other organs. In people with type 2 diabetes, urinary tract infection is the most prevalent, the most severe, and has the worst consequences. They are also more frequently caused by microorganisms that are resistant to antibiotics. Immune system dysfunction, poor metabolic regulation, and inadequate bladder emptying owing to autonomic neuropathy may all contribute to these individuals' increased risk of urinary tract infections. The novel anti-diabetic sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors were not shown to raise the likelihood of symptomatic urinary tract infections appreciably. Urinary tract infection symptoms are comparable to those seen in people without diabetes, while some patients with diabetic neuropathy may exhibit changed clinical findings. The existence of symptoms, the severity of systemic symptoms, whether the infection is limited in the bladder or also includes the kidney, the presence of urologic abnormalities, concomitant metabolic disturbances, and renal function all influence treatment. There is no evidence that diabetic people with asymptomatic bacteriuria should be treated. Diabetes length, age, gender, method of drug administration, kind of medicines used in diabetes, poor glycemic control, obesity, unsanitary settings, sexual intercourse, and type of DM are all risk factors for UTI in diabetic patients. Antibiotic usage on a daily basis has rendered numerous harmful microorganisms resistant to their effects. In the long run, if UTI in diabetes people is not treated, it might lead to serious problems. Furthermore, the pattern of antibiotic resistance varies by geographical area. As a result, the use of susceptible antibiotics to treat UTI in diabetes patients has become critical. Medline and PubMed public database searches was carried out for papers written all over the world on UTI in diabetic patients. No predictive analytics technology was used. To evaluate the initial results and the methods of conducting the paper, the group members reviewed the data.

Review Article

BLOOD TRANSFUSION REACTION IN EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT

FAHAD BAHAIDARAH, RAWABI IBRAHIM ASAHEIMI, AMJAD ATIAH M. ALRUWAILI, ALSAILEEK, ZAINAB AHMED A., AHMED HASSAN AL HUSSAIN, MOHAMMED ABDULLAH ALSALAIM, ABDULLAH SAUD ABDULLAH ALFARAJ, MOHAMED OMAR MOHAMED ABDELBAKI SHEHATA, SAGR, ABDULMAJEED ADIL M., KHALID MOHAMMED ALTUWAYJIRI, KHALAF MOHAMMED ALKHALAF, HASSAN MOHAMMED ASIRI, SULTAN ESSA ALHARBI, MISHAL AIED HUDERS ALANZY, MOHAMMED HUSSAIN A. ALRUWAILI

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 387-392

Early detection, rapid cessation of the transfusion, early consultation with the hematologic and ICU departments, and fluid resuscitation are all necessary for the initial management of blood transfusion reactions. It is crucial that doctors stay current with the literature, are knowledgeable of the pathophysiology, early therapy, and hazards of each type of transfusion reaction because blood transfusions can result in major adverse consequences. Immune-mediated transfusion responses frequently result from a mismatch or incompatibility between the recipient and the transfused substance. Monitoring the patient's respiration rate, blood pressure, temperature, and pulse rate is necessary. Abnormal clinical characteristics, such as fever, rashes, or angioedema, should also be constantly evaluated.

Review Article

AN OVERVIEW OF IATROGENIC OBESITY IN ADOLESCENTS

NAJLAA MOHAMMAD ALSUDAIRY, OHUD MOHAMMED ALQAHTANI, MOUDHI MOHAMMED ALAJMI, SAUD SAAD ALRADADI, ABDULRAHMAN MOHAMMED ALRSHODY, HUSSAM ABDULSHAKOUR JAMALUDDIN, SULAIMAN ABDULLAH ALRAQIBAH, ABDULAZIZ HOMOUD A. ALRETHAIA, SAEED FARAJ ALSULAMI, MARYAM ABDULRAHMAN ALDEHAMI, ABDULLAH ALI ALSHOMRANI, MOHAMMED ALHUSSAIN ALSHANQITI, BASSAM MOHAMMAD ALOWAYDHAH, RENAD BRAHIM SALEH ALZAAQ

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 415-428

Obesity is a chronic, multifactorial condition described as an abnormal or excessive buildup of body fat that endangers an individual's health. It is a huge global public health problem. Prednisone and anti-psychotic medicines are known to cause weight gain and  obesity. In this era of precision medicine, it is critical to identify individuals who are most likely to gain weight as a result of pharmaceutical use. Hypoglycemic anti-diabetes medicines, psychotropic agents (atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants), anticonvulsant and mood stabilizer agents, and different hormones are the most regularly reported prescription groups that may cause weight gain. The obesity pandemic is multifaceted, but medication-induced weight gain may play a role. While doctors may aim to pick pharmacotherapies  with the least detrimental influence on weight, the literature on the weight effects of medicine is frequently inadequate and empty of alternative treatments. Because of the devastating consequences of adolescents  obesity, new therapies are desperately needed. Real-world data reveal that the majority of teenagers do not lose weight over time, and pharmacological therapy should be recommended.

Review Article

HYPERTENSION AS A RISK FACTOR FOR COVID-19 SEVERITY AND MORTALITY: AN INTEGRATIVE REVIEW

NISREEN OMAR ASRAF, ZAHRAH MOHAMMED ALFARAJ, MALIKAH ABDU ABUAISHAH, AISHA ABDU ABUAISHAH, ESRAA AHMAD ALSHAREEF, ABDOUH ALI A AWAD, AFNAN ALHUSSEIN IBRAHIM ZOGHBY, FATIMAH ESSA MOHAMMED AGEELI, AMAL AHMAD MOBARKI, LUAI KHALIL GHANDOORA, DANAH YOUSSEF ALBOURI, ALI HUSSAIN ALKHALUF, IBRAHIM FAHAD ALHUMAIDI, MOHAMED HASSAN ASSEM MOHAMED ABDELMEGUID

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 435-447

The new coronavirus illness (COVID-19) produced by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has swiftly grown into a global epidemic. Hypertension has been identified as the most common cardiovascular comorbidity in COVID-19 patients, and it has been shown to increase the risk of hospitalization and mortality. Initial research suggested that renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors might raise the likelihood of viral infection and worsen illness severity, generating concern considering the global prevalence of hypertension. Nonetheless, further research supported the use of antihypertensive medicines, noting that they do not worsen the severity of COVID-19 infection in hypertensive individuals, but may have a favorable impact. To yet, the specific mechanism through which hypertension predisposes to adverse outcomes in COVID-19 individuals is unclear. In this study, we discuss the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and hypertension, as well as probable causes, with an emphasis on the dual roles of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in COVID-19 and hypertension. The effects of pro-inflammatory factors released by the immune system and gastrointestinal dysfunction in COVID-19 are also discussed, as well as how to manage hypertension with covid-19.

Review Article

MULTIVARIATE APPROACHES TO CLUB LARGE WATER QUALITY DATA FROM AQUATIC TOXICITY STUDIES: A REVIEW STUDY

RAJBIR KAUR, ANISH DUA, SATINDER KAUR

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 500-509

Water is the most valuable, widespread resource, major constituent of all living creatures and extremely essential for the sustenance & existence of life. This is exemplified by its multiple uses such as drinking, cooking, washing, irrigation, farming, industrial activities and many more. Quality of surface waters are getting deteriorated as water resources are polluted due to the discharge of industrial effluents, agricultural run-off having insecticides, pesticides, heavy metals, fertilizers, chemicals, sewage and other domestic wastes. This review strongly recommends the incorporation of regular monitoring programmes for reliable estimation of water quality, effective pollution control and water resource management. The practice of conducting physicochemical studies is even essential/mandatory before conducting any toxicity study using fishes or any other sentinel organism both for in-vivo and in-vitro studies. Frequent sampling at many sites with a lot of water quality parameters generates a large & complex data matrix that needs data interpretation. The use of different multivariate approaches provide a rapid solution by identifications of factors that are mainly influencing water quality, clustering many parameters to identify the parameters mainly responsible for spatial and temporal variations linked to seasonality. In this way, reliable management of water resources as well as rapid solutions to pollution problems and effective environmental impact assessment can be approached.

Mini Review Papers

ROLE OF PRIMARY CARE PHYSICIAN IN THE MANAGEMENT OF EATING DISORDERS

NISREEN OMAR ASRAF, MUSLIH MOHAMMED ALJAHDALY, ABDULLAH HABIB ALLUQMANI, ROAA MOHAMMED ALJADEED, ABDULRAHMAN HAMAD ALGADHEEB, MAHDI MAHFOODH ALABBAD, ABDULLAH HUSSAIN AL ABUSAAB, HATIM MOHAMMED ALSHAHRANI, TASNIM ALI ALBATTI, SARAH ABDULLAH ALHASSAN, ABDULLAH NASSER ALSHAHRANI, KAWTHAR FAWAZ ALHAMWAN

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 271-276

Numerous occupations rely on a person's weight for success. Models and performers present a degree of thinness that is hard to achieve. Media sources frequently advertise weight-loss strategies and diet secrets. Populations like mature females associate weight loss with self-control and slim body types with higher self-esteem. All of this contribute to arise of many eating disorders such as Anorexia Nervosa. Although it has always been believed that psychiatrists should be in charge of diagnosing and treating eating problems, general care doctors also play a crucial part. The primary care doctor is in charge of coordinating treatment, including the management of problems and assessing if hospitalization is necessary. The primary care physician must collaborate with a multidisciplinary team that includes a nutritionist and a mental health expert. Finally, the primary care physician may be primarily responsible for continuous treatment and for the management of problems.

Systematic Review Article

ANTICOAGULANTS AND THROMBOLYTICS IN PREGNANCY, A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

MAZEN BISHARAH, ASRAR FAWAZ ALANAZI, S. ALATAWI, ASMA MOHAMMED, YOUSUF LOAI F RAMADAN, ELAF TALIB MESHREF, JOUD AMER ALKWILDY, SAEED SAAD ALQAHTANI, HASHIM HUSSAIN ALALI, MOHAYA KHANFOUR ALRASHIDI, ABDALRHMAN NABIL T. BOKHARI, EBTHAL HASSAN K. AL-GHAZWI, MUNEERA AHMED OMAR ALROWAILA, SULTAN ABDULAZIZ ALHUMAID, AHMED SAYYAF ALRAKHIMI

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 177-188

Background: In the developed countries, pulmonary thromboembolism associated with pregnancy (VTE) continues to be the principal cause of direct maternal death. Despite thorough treatment and preventative recommendations from several national authorities, reductions in mortality due to VTE have been negligible. Anticoagulation is still the cornerstone of prenatal care and has to be given to all patients with proven or high-risk PE. The preferred medication is low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), which has a known pharmacodynamic profile. Despite the massive utilization of these drugs there is actually little evidence supporting their efficiency in recurrent pregnancy loss reduction.

Objectives: The study aims to summarize current evidences regarding the usage of anticoagulants and thrombolytics in Pregnancy.

Methods: For article selection, the PubMed database and EBSCO Information Services were used. All relevant articles relevant with our topic and other articles were used in our review. Other articles that were not related to this field were excluded. The data was extracted in a specific format that was reviewed by the group members.

Conclusion: A common cause of maternal death, pulmonary embolism-related fatalities still occur often in pregnant women with pulmonary embolism. One-third of pregnant women with pulmonary embolism and hemodynamic failure were reported to undergo systemic thrombolysis. There is an urgent need to improve prevention and care techniques for this vulnerable patient population.

LMWHs are widely used for several different purposes as well as for the treatment and prevention of VTE during pregnancy and puerperium. Although the medicine has been found to be both safe and effective, there is no scientific proof to support its usage for all indications.

In pregnant women with thrombophilia who are at high risk of developing these issues, prenatal prophylactic dalteparin does not prevent venous thromboembolism, pregnancy loss, or placenta-mediated pregnancy difficulties and is linked to an increased risk of mild bleeding. Enoxaparin may not offer any meaningful benefits to people suffering from recurrent abortion. However, in one study, the miscarriage rate was significantly lower when enoxaparin was used compared with untreated controls.

Systematic Review Article

PREVALENCE AND PREDISPOSITION FACTORS THAT CAUSE CYTOMEGALOVIRUS ESOPHAGITIS

MOHAMMED SALAH HUSSAIN, BATOOL MESFER M ALQAHTANY, SUKAINAH SALEH ALISMAIL, FATIMAH HUSSAIN ALSHUHAYB, EYAD ABDULATIF ALMOHAISSEN, WESAM KAMEL B. ALANAZI, YASSER MOHAMMED A. ALAMMARI, ALI AHMED A. ALMARZOUG, ABDULAZIZ MUQBIL FALEH ALSHAMMARI, GHADAH MOHAMMED ALHARBI, A. ALJUHANI FAISAL GHAZI, ZAINAB MOHAMMED ALFARAJ

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 189-200

Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-associated gastrointestinal disorders are typically seen in immune-compromised patients; nevertheless, a few cases have been reported in healthy hosts, despite the fact that the pathogenic mechanisms are yet unknown. Various lesions, including erythematous mucosa, erosions, and ulcers, are brought on by CMV esophagitis, albeit these inflammatory alterations can also be seen in nearby or superficial esophageal malignancies. Cancer patients with late and/or terminal stages of the disease have also been known to develop CMV-associated esophagitis due to immunosuppression brought on by chemotherapy or the physiological demands of the cancer itself.

Objectives: To identify the prevalence of cytomegalovirus esophagitis, describe the evaluation of cytomegalovirus esophagitis and outline the causes of cytomegalovirus esophagitis.

Methods: For article selection, the PubMed database and EBSCO Information Services were used. All relevant articles relevant with our topic and other articles were used in our review. Other articles that were not related to this field were excluded. The data was extracted in a specific format that was reviewed by the group members.

Conclusion: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) esophagitis, which can result from illnesses including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and treatments like post-organ transplantation, long-term dialysis, and systemic steroid therapy, is mostly brought on by systemic immune deficiency. Primary CMV infection, however, can result in serious organ-specific consequences with high morbidity and fatality rates. In immune-competent people, severe CMV infections can have an impact on practically every system.

Systematic Review Article

PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN CHILDREN IN SAUDI ARABIA, A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

SAWSAN HASSAN ABDULLAH HASHEM, EMAN MAZYAD ALRUWAILI, RAWAN FAYEZ ALSAADI, FERYAL AYED L. ALANAZI, MARWA MUTLAQ ALENEZI, SULTANAH RAWI ALANAZI, NAWAL SAUD B. ALANAZI, ASMA SALEH S. ALRUWAILI

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 201-209

Background: The results of the few epidemiological studies that have been carried out in Saudi Arabia to determine the prevalence of childhood asthma are highly inconsistent. As a result, we did a systematic literature review to assess the frequency of childhood asthma in Saudi Arabia since knowing the prevalence of common bronchial asthma in children will help doctors better grasp the scope of this health problem and inform resource planning.

Objectives: This study aims to summarize current estimations of the prevalence and risk factors of bronchial asthma among children in Saudi Arabia.

Methods: The PubMed database and EBSCO Information Services were utilised to choose the articles. In our review, all pertinent articles related to both our topic and other articles were used.  Other articles that were unrelated to this field were not considered. The data was extracted in a specific format, which the group members reviewed.

Conclusion: Bronchial asthma prevalence rates in Saudi Arabia are increasing annually. The highest prevalence rate was found in Al Hafouf region while the lowest was reported in Abha. Risk factors were significantly associated with bronchial asthma as phycological status, smoking family member, socioeconomic status, dust, air pollution, allergens as well as other factors.

Systematic Review Article

PREVALENCE OF SICKLE-CELL DISEASE IN SAUDI ARABIA: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

NISREEN OMAR ASRAF, SAAD ABDULRAHMAN ALJIBREEN, MUATH BADER ALOTAIBI, MOHAMMED HADI HADADI, H. ALTHOMALI FARIS AHMED, AFNAN ATEEG BATWIE, WALEED MOHAMMED ALGHAMDI, YASSER HUSSAIN AL-JAFFER, SALEH MOHAMMED ALHAI, KHALID ABDULLAH ALSHEHAB, TARIQ MOHAMMED ALSHAMI, MOHAMMED ALI ALSALMAN, NUHA ABDULAZIZ S ALHARBI

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 210-223

Background: A series of hemoglobinopathies known collectively as sickle cell disease (SCD) contain abnormalities in the gene encoding the beta component of haemoglobin. There are other subcategories that fall under the SCD umbrella, including sickle cell disease (SCD), haemoglobin SC disease (HbSC), and haemoglobin sickle-beta thalassemia (beta-thalassemia positive or beta-thalassemia negative). The prevalence of SCD varies greatly across Saudi Arabia, with the Eastern province having the greatest frequency and the southern regions having the second-highest prevalence. The reported sickle-cell prevalence ranges from 2% to 27%, and in some regions, up to 2.6% of people will have SCD.

Objectives: The study aims to summarize current evidences regarding Prevalence of Sickle-Cell Disease in Saudi Arabia.

Methods: For article selection, the PubMed database and EBSCO Information Services were used. All relevant articles relevant with our topic and other articles were used in our review. Other articles that were not related to this field were excluded. The data was extracted in a specific format that was reviewed by the group members.

Conclusion: Although the prevenance of sickle cell anemia is relatively high due to multiple reasons such as consanguinity, the prevalence of genetic diseases in Saudi Arabia may be significantly lowered during the following decades as a result of premarital screening there. Also, acute chest syndrome in SCD patients is relatively infrequent in Saudi Arabia's Eastern Province, it nonetheless has a major impact on morbidity and death. If patients with African haplotypes are compared, it has a low prevalence and recurrence.

Systematic Review Article

FLOATING ELBOW: AN INTEGRATIVE LITERATURE REVIEW

ELSAYED SHAHEEN, ALI HUSSAIN ALSHUHAYB, YUSUF ALI ALSHEHRI, ALHASSAN, OMAR ABDULAZIZ A., FARIS SAEED MOHAMMED ALQAHTANI, RAKAN YOUSEF ABDULLAH ALQARNI, MUSTAFA YAHYA H. NAJMI, ABDULRAHMAN FAYEZ S. ALOTAIBI, FAHAD ABDULLAH F. BIN SAAB, ALI ATIYAH ALBOHASSAN, ABDULHADI HELAL T. ALSAEED, AHMED OMRAN ALMOHAMMEDALI, MOHAMMED ALI AL SALEH

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 230-244

Background: Floating elbow is a rare condition caused by ipsilateral humeral and forearm fractures, resulting in an unstable intermediate articulation. High-velocity or high-energy trauma, such as car accidents or high-angle falls, are the main causes of floating elbow injuries. The multiple injuries, open fractures, and neurovascular injury that occur concurrently are the most common. A clinical and radiological diagnosis has been made. Epiphyseal closure and stiffness are problems associated with fractures of the forearm and elbow.

Objectives: To state the epidemiology of the floating elbow, assess and describe the classification then summarize the management of the injuries of floating elbow.

Methods: The PubMed database and EBSCO Information Services were utilized to choose the articles. In our review, all pertinent articles related to both our topic and other articles were used. Other articles that have nothing to do with this subject were not included. The group members looked through a certain format in which the data had been extracted.

Conclusion: Floating elbow is a rare and intricate injury pattern that can result in a variety of functional consequences. The expression describes joint fractures of the humerus and forearm bones in the same extremity. It may affect both adults and children. This damage pattern has been documented in a few published publications, but none of them include epidemiological data, therefore its prevalence remains unknown. Hence, this systemic article state all that helps in knowing the disease.

Systematic Review Article

HEMORRHOIDECTOMY VERSES RUBBER BAND LIGATION

HASHEM BARK AWADH ABOOD, ALI AHMED ALSOWAIQ, ALI MOHAMMED ASIRI, SALWA HUSSAIN ALMALKI, TALAL MOHAMMED ALZAHRANI, NOUF JABRIL A SHARWANI, BELAL SAMI BAROGAAN, FAHAD ABDULAZIZ H ALHAZMI, AHMED ATIAH A ALGHAMDI, ZIYAD HAMAD S AL HABIS, WAHAJ ABDULLAH ALMASOUD, RAZAN ABDULKAREEM ALSINI, MUNIRAH ABDULKARIM D ALDAHAM

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 24, Page 252-261

According to some estimates, haemorrhoids afflict up to one-quarter of all individuals. There are numerous methods available to manage them, ranging from topical and medicinal medicines to outpatient treatments and surgical techniques to repair or excise. Given the disease's polysymptomaticism, determining which therapy choice is optimal is tough. Hemorrhoid disease treatment is one of the most difficult fields in general surgery, with various approaches utilised to cure this illness. In this research, we contrasted Hemorrhoidectomy verses Rubber Band Ligation results of treatment methods for hemorrhoids. Review the effectiveness and safety of the two most often used conventional treatments for haemorrhoids, rubber band ligation and excisional haemorrhoidectomy, and compare between the clinical results for both procedures. The PubMed database and EBSCO Information Services were utilized to choose the articles. In this review, all pertinent articles related to both our topic and other articles were used. Other articles that have nothing to do with this subject were not included. The group members looked through a certain format in which the data had been extracted. Internal hemorrhoid is a common pathological anorectal appearance, although it is a difficult condition to treat. Internal haemorrhoids symptoms and indicators should be thoroughly explored, as should clinical grading. Individual thinking and clinical considerations should influence the various possibilities for managing internal haemorrhoids and specific therapeutic approaches. At first, lifestyle changes should be made, such as consuming a high-fiber diet, developing sane bathroom routines, and administering phlebotropic drugs. When alternative treatments don't work, surgical methods and outpatient procedures should be used. Therapy management such as Hemorrhoidectomy or Rubber Band Ligation is critical to preventing future consequences from internal haemorrhoids.

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