Original Research Article

CASE SERIES OF SMALL INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION IN ADULT

NITIN R. NANGRE, A. M. SHAH, SHREESH S. KOLEKAR, ARUN K. KULKARNI, MAYUR NAGVEKAR

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 41, Issue 24, Page 1-5

In adult surgical procedures, small bowel obstruction (SBO) is normal, largely due to postoperative adhesion. Acute SBO is less frequent and has distinct etiologies in people without a history of abdominal surgery, trauma, or clinical hernia. Congenital bands are an extraordinarily unusual cause. Aim of the study is to study the clinical presentation of intestinal obstruction in adult population. The case series of small intestinal obstruction in adult is the cross sectional study. The present paper was performed on all minor intestinal obstruction cases within the surgery department, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS), Karad. The present study concluded that 18-30 years is the age group and the male sex is most prominent for acute small intestine obstruction. The most popular clinical presentation is stomach pain, distension, tenderness.

Original Research Article

DIVERSITY OF BRACHYURAN CRABS IN AYIRAMTHENGU MANGROVE; A PART OF KAYAMKULAM BACKWATER, KERALA, INDIA

S. SUJITH KUMAR, S. AMINA

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 41, Issue 24, Page 6-11

Mangroves in the estuarine ecosystem play important roles in biodiversity maintenance, energy flow and provide a home and feeding ground for a wide range of species. Brachyuran crabs are ecologically important and considered as inevitable part mangrove ecosystem. Here we investigates the present status of brachyuran crab diversity and seasonal variation in their distribution and abundance in the Ayiramthengu mangrove; a part Kayamkulam backwater during February 2017- January 2018. In total 1364 individuals were encountered, comprising 13 species of brachyuran crabs belonging to 4 family and 8 genera. 5 species of Portunid crab belonging to 4 genera, 5 species of Grapsid crab, 1 species of Sesarmid crab and 2 species of Ocypodi crabs were identified up to species level. The species diversity was high during monsoon (43%) followed by post monsoon (35%) and pre monsoon (22%). Salinity may be the reason for the difference in the diversity of crabs in various seasons. The calculated values of various diversity indices included Shannon–Wiener diversity (H’) ranged from 1.922 to 2.355, Margalef’s species richness (d) ranged from 1.048 to 1.886, Dominance Index (D) ranged from 0.1038 to 0.1497. Conservation strategies are required for the protection of Ayiramthengu region in general.

Original Research Article

COMPARISON OF DEXMEDETOMIDINE AND CLONIDINE IN COMBINATION WITH BUPACAVINE IN THE SUPRACLAVICULAR BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK

V. K. DHULKHED, HEMANT SINGH, AVINASH J. BHOSALE, R. M. MULLA, AMRUTA HEPALGAONKAR

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 41, Issue 24, Page 12-15

The present study attempted to evaluate the effects of dexmedetomidine (1 mcg/kg) and clonidine (1 mcg/kg) on 0.375% of bupivacaine (35 cc) of the supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Occurs as an assistant. To detect sensory/motor blockade, the onset and duration of post-operative analgesia and any possible complications. The objective of the study is to compare Clonidine and Dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to Bupivacaine in a supraclavicular brachial plexus block. The study included a total of 60 patients related to American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical condition I and II between the ages of 18-60 years, scheduled for elective upper limb surgery under the supraclavicular brachial plexus block. The presence of dexmedetomidine increases the length of sensory and motor blocks and the duration of analgesia and enhances the consistency of anaesthesia when injected with bupivacaine in the supraclavicular brachial plexus block.

Original Research Article

PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL RESULTS OF HYPERTHERMAL (HOT) MINERAL WATER IN RUPITE, BULGARIA AS MODEL SYSTEM FOR ORIGIN OF LIFE

IGNAT IGNATOV, NEDYALKA VALCHEVA, SASHKA MIHAYLOVA, GEORGI DINKOV

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 41, Issue 24, Page 16-22

The objective of current research is to prove the presence of bacteria genus Bacillus in hot mineral water from Rupite, Bulgaria. The water of Rupite is rich in hydrocarbon and calcium ions. The presence of bivalent Calcium (Ca2+) and Magnesium (Mg2+) ions in warm and hot mineral waters  take part in the activation of cortex-lytic enzymes during germination of Bacillus subtilis (Igura, 2003).

In 2010 Ignatov and Mosin indicate the possibility for origin of life and living matter in hot mineral water 3.5 billion years ago. Comparative analyses are conducted based on experiments for the  similarities of spectra of hot mineral waters and cactus juice. The closest matches are the spectra of cactus juice and the water from Rupite, Bulgaria. Such compatibility is not observed between the cactus juice and sea water. In the cactus juice and the hot mineral water we observed five comparable local extremums (8.95; 9.67; 9.81; 10.47; 11.13 μm), whereas there was only one (9.10 μm) with the sea water. It is therefore justified to suggest that most probably life originated in hot mineral water. According to their temperature they can be cold (up to 37 °С), warm (from 37°C to 60 °C) and hot (over 60 °C). This is temperature standard in Bulgaria, European Union.

Original Research Article

SNAKE DIVERSITY IN GOLDEN TRIANGLE OF THAR DESERT OF RAJASTHAN, INDIA

RAKESH KUMAWAT, ASHOK PUROHIT

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 41, Issue 24, Page 27-32

The pattern of ecological assemblage in the arid and semi-arid region of the Thar Desert in Rajasthan altering at a high pace after the Indira Gandhi Nahar Pariyojna canal expansion for three decades. About this, this study revises the most favoured, secretive, and environment-sensitive underprivileged taxa (serpents) in the framework of diversity and occurrence in the golden triangle of the Thar Desert of Rajasthan state (Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, and Bikaner). Overall, 22 species and one subspecies were identified in four years of extensive field study based on the active search, night drives, scale counting, and topographical database. This study's finding pointed out the apparent abolition of previously most common snake such as Russell's viper and Indian rock python, Contrast to this, potential colonies of lesser-known Sindh Awl-headed snake, Afro-Asian sand snake, and Red-spotted royal snake has exposed.

Original Research Article

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF DRY EYE BEFORE AND AFTER MANUAL SMALL INCISION CATARACT SURGERY

GIRISH GADRE, GAYATHRI MOHAN, B. S. JOSHI, GAURAV S. PARANJAPE, M. M. ALATE

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 41, Issue 24, Page 33-36

Dry eye is a multifactorial and visual surface condition that outcomes in side effects of pain, vision inability, and tear film brokenness with possible surface unsettling influence of the eye. The reason for this examination is to decide the extent of dry eye when manual minor incision cataract medical procedure utilizing a corneoscleral tunnel. A hospital-based experimental study was conducted from January 2015 to June 2017, in the Eye Institute of the Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Karad, patients undergoing small incisional cataract surgery. All dry eye testing done on eyes undergoing cataract surgery indicated deterioration after surgery. Early identification of improvements in tear film status following cataract surgery tends to improve postoperative conditions with respect to the quality of patient’s life.

Original Research Article

PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF CHIKKLINGDALLI WATER BODY

SHASHIKANTH H. MAJAGI, JAYADEV NAIK, S. G. DHANANJAYA, D. S. SOMASHEKAR

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 41, Issue 24, Page 37-49

The present study is carried out for estimation of primary productivity in relation to water quality of Chikklingadalli water body of Chinchollitaluk, Kalaburagi district, every month water samples were collected from the four different sampling sites of the water body from Feb 2016 to January 2018. Various water quality parameters including Atmospheric and water temperature, DO, Free CO2, Total alkalinity, Total hardness, Chloride, Nitrate, TDS etc. were estimated, whereas correlation and coefficient between parameters were analyzed. During the study period all the values of the physico-chemical parameters are within the permissible limit. Primary productivity values were recorded highest during summer season and   northeast monsoon season and lowest values recorded during the southwest monsoon season from study area. Data subjected to statistical analysis.

Original Research Article

A COMPARISON OF EPIDURAL BUTORPHANOL AND FENTANYL FOR POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIA USING COMBINED SPINAL EPIDURAL ANAESTHESIA TECHNIQUE

P. B. JAMALE, SIDDHARTH SHARMA, ARCHANA GAUTAM, DHANSHREE KALE, AMRUTA HEPALGAONKAR

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 41, Issue 24, Page 50-55

A prospective randomized controlled clinical comparative study entitled “A Comparison of epidural Butorphanol 2 mg and Fentanyl 75 mcg for Postoperative analgesia using Combined Spinal Epidural Anaesthesia technique: A randomized double blind clinical study” was conducted in 40 patients between the ages of 18-60 for elective physical conditions at the Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Hospital and Research Center, Karad from the year 2016-2017 and admitted for elective physical surgery. All cases were given Combined spinal epidural anaesthesia using 4 ml 0.5% bupivacaine in spinal and in the postoperative period, immediately after surgery they received epidural butorphanol 2 mg (group B) or fentanyl 75 mcg (group F) diluted to 10 ml with normal saline.

Original Research Article

DOCUMENTATION OF HERPETOFAUNAL DIVERSITY IN NAWALPARASI DISTRICT, NEPAL

PIT BAHADUR NEPALI, NANDA BAHADUR SINGH

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 41, Issue 24, Page 56-70

The study aimed to (i) prepare a checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of the low to mid-elevation and (ii) measure the abundance, distribution, and diversity of the herpetofauna of Nawalparasi district, Nepal. The samples were collected at six different sites in the habitat of agricultural field, human habitat, forest, riparian, and wetland of Nawalparasi, Nepal from May 2016 to April 2019. In each habitat type, 20 cell quadrates were sampled and altogether 100 quadrates in each site. Besides this, visual encounter surveys, opportunistic surveys, and pitfall were conducted seasonally. Altogether 44 species of herpetofauna belonging to 12 species of amphibians 32 species of reptiles were recorded. The richness of amphibians is greater in agricultural fields (S=12) and lower in the forest (S=4) and reptile’s richness was greater in the forest (S= 24) and lowest in the wetland (S=6). The abundance of amphibians in agricultural fields was more than in other habitats. Shannon diversity index (Hˈ) of amphibians in agricultural fields was higher (2.07) and lowest in the wetland (1.54) and reptile 2.68 and 1.45 respectively. Similarly Simpson index of amphibians were 0.83, 0.72, 0.78, 0.82, 0.75 and 0.88, 0.86, 0.87, 0.81, and 0.74 in reptiles in such habitat respectively. Pielou evenness index ranges from 0.33 to 0.52 in amphibians and 0.28 to 0.46 in reptiles. The values indicate that amphibians in agricultural fields are more diverse compared to the forest and agricultural fields are more diverse compared to the wetlands in the reptile. Information on herpetofaunal abundance and diversity helps to control insect pests, detect environmental pollution, maintain healthy ecosystems, and aid future research.

Original Research Article

DEXMEDETOMIDINE AS AN ADJUNCT TO SPINAL ANESTHESIA IN INTRATHECAL VERSUS INTRAVENOUS DEXMEDETOMIDINE LOWER LIMB ORTHOPEDIC SURGERIES

NASEEMA V. KANASE, JUBER AHAMAD RAJJAK ATTAR, SHRADDHA V. NAIK, ARCHANA GAUTAM, DHANSHREE N. KALE, R. M. MULLA, P. B. PATIL

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 41, Issue 24, Page 71-75

Purpose of the study was to compare about beginning and time period of sensory and motor block, hemodynamic security, duration of analgesia and symptoms between two groups. This study was performed in 60 American Society of Anesthesiologists I / II patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery in the lower limb at Krishna Hospital, Karad. Patients were randomly assigned to the IT and IV groups. Before Subarachnoid block (SAB) in IV group dexmedetomidine was given bolus 1 µg/kg over 10 min and then after SAB 0.5 µg/kg/hr throughout surgery. In IT group equal volumes of normal saline were infused before and after SAB. In IT group with 3ml bupivacaine 5 µg dexmedetomidine was added intrathecally. While in IV group equal volume of normal saline was added in SAB.

Original Research Article

MORPHOMETRIC COMPARISON OF CHARACIDAE FISH WHEN n < p

DANNY VILLEGAS RIVAS, MANUEL MILLA PINO, TOMÁS RODRÍGUEZ BEAS, MIRYAM LORA LOZA, MARTÍN GRADOS VASQUEZ, CESAR OSORIO CARRERA, RICARDO SHIMABUKU YSA, RIVER CHÁVEZ SANTOS, LUIS RAMÍREZ CALDERÓN, YDALIA VELÁSQUEZ CASANA, WILFREDO RUIZ CAMACHO, HUGO EGOCHEAGA CASAS, CLELIA JIMA CHAMIQUIT, ROBERTO PACHECO ROBLES, ZADITH GARRIDO CAMPAÑA, ERICK DELGADO BAZAN

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 41, Issue 24, Page 76-83

Currently, great importance has been given to the study of external morphology, especially in fish, when it is used as a means of identifying hybrids. This paper considers a LASSO model based on the truss protocol to compare morphological covarion patterns between specimens of Colossoma macropomum and the hybrid C. macropomum (♀) x P. orinoquensis (♂). In this study, 25 specimens of C. macropomum and 20 specimens of the hybrid C. macropomum (♀) x P. orinoquensis (♂), respectively, were analyzed. The method "Truss protocol" or "trusses" Strauss and Bookstein (1982) was used. LASSO model achieved to reduce the mean squared error. The final model obtained contains only seven covariates. LASSO model fitted on the morphological covariation patterns between specimens of C. macropomum and the hybrid C. macropomum (♀) x P. orinoquensis (♂) showed a good fit and allowed to correctly classify most of the specimens. Differences were observed in the area of the head and in the anterior part of the fish evidenced in covariates associated with hydrodynamic abilities and with foraging.Morphometry

Original Research Article

A REVIEW OF APHIDS (HOMOPTERA: APHIDIDAE) AND THEIR NATURAL ENEMIES IN VEGETABLE CROP ECOSYSTEMS IN JAMMU AND KASHMIR, INDIA

DEEN MOHD. BHAT, FAYAZ AHMAD AHANGER, MUZAFAR AHMAD SHEIKH

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 41, Issue 24, Page 84-95

In order to explore aphid pests and their naturally occurring bio-control agents (parasitoids and predators), an extensive field survey was conducted in different vegetable ecosystems of the Kashmir Valley during the years from 2014-2019. Moreover, a through literature survey pertaining to aphids, reported from Jammu and Kashmir region, was also done. Accordingly, based on these studies, it was concluded that as many as 18 species of aphids belonging to 12 genera infest as many as 26 species and 30 varieties of vegetable crops in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K). Among these aphids, the most abundant species, which infest many most vegetable plant species, are Aphis craccivora Koch, Aphis fabae solanella Theobald, Aphis gossypii Glover, Brevicoryne brassicae (Linnaeus) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer). It was also concluded that at least 29 species of insect predators and 17 species of parasitoids occur naturally to suppress these aphid species in vegetable ecosystems in J&K.  Among these natural enemies, the commonly occurring ones are Adalia tetraspilota (Hope), Coccinella septempunctata L., Cheilomenes sexmaculatus Fabricius, Hippodamia variegata (Goe.), Propylea luteopustulata (Mulsant) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae); Chrysoperla zastrowi Sillemi (Esben-Petersen)  (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae); Episyrphus balteatus DeGeer, Melanostoma univitatum (Wiedemann), Sphaerophoria scripta (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Syrhidae); Aphidius matricariae Haliday, Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh), Trioxys spp. (Hymenoptera : Braconidae). In sum, through this study, a comprehensive account of aphids and their natural enemies with reference to vegetable crops in J&K region is presented. This work will be useful for the studies concerning the devising of strategies for Integrated Control Program of aphids, especially through utilization of natural bio-control agents.

Original Research Article

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF CRUDE OIL DEGRADING BACTERIA FROM CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATED AREAS

S. P. GOPIKA LAKSHMI, V. RESHMI

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 41, Issue 24, Page 96-105

The present study aimed to isolate, identify and characterize oil-degrading microbes from oil-contaminated sites. In this study, 26 bacterial strains were isolated from crude oil-contaminated sites and identified by using morphological, biochemical and molecular analysis by DNA gene sequencing. Their ability to biodegrade crude oil was determined by screening for bio-surfactant activity and by employing well diffusion assays. From these 26 strains, 3 bacterial isolates proved to be able to degrade all the 4 crude oil components (petrol, diesel, kerosene, engine oil). The isolates were subjected to morphological and biochemical characterisation, optimization for pH and temperature and PCR and DNA sequence analysis for identification. Based on biochemical and molecular characterization, these isolates were identified as Psuedomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes and P. fluorescens.

Review Article

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF NATURAL AND RECOMBINANT SPIDER SILK – A REVIEW

ANITHA ABRAHAM, MATHEW M. JOSEPH, M. MINU

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 41, Issue 24, Page 106-112

Spider silk is a protein fibre spun by spiders and they use their silk for a variety of purposes such as for making webs or other structures, which function as sticky nets to catch their prey, or as nets or cocoons to protect their offspring, or for depositing sperms etc. It has a variety of properties that make them useful in a range of potential industrial and medical applications. Spider silk has been used for making fishing gears and lures, weaving ceremonial and bullet- proof garments and also used clinically as surgical sutures for centuries due to its biocompatibility, slow degradability and high tensile strength. Research on its antibacterial activity is important for humans as they are facing novel and harmful pathogens day by day. Most of the microorganisms are becoming resistant to many antibacterial agents. This review is an attempt to discuss the antimicrobial activities of natural and recombinant spider silk. Our studies revealed that antibacterial activities are exhibited by the silk of some specific species of spiders. (Pardosa brevivulva, Eriovixia excelsa, Stegodyphus sarasinorum, Cyclosa confraga, Nephila pilipes, Pholcus phalangioides, Tegenaria domestica, Pityohyphantes phrygianus, Parawixia dehaani, Crossopriza lyoni, Neoscona theisi and Argiope trifasciata). The silk of some spider species (Linothele fallax, Linothele megatheloides, Argiope aurantia and Latrodectus hesperus) do not show such activity. It was observed that gram positive bacteria are more susceptible to spider silk than gram negative bacteria. Recombinant spider silk also possesses a high potential for biomedical applications because of its anti-microbial property, biocompatibility and biodegradability. Antimicrobial properties of spider silk can also be influenced by the diet and environmental conditions. Further future studies in this regard may lead to the discovery of novel biomaterials and new therapeutic drugs against microbes which will be of great significance especially in this pandemic situation.

Case Study

THE NON RETINAL MANIFESTATIONS OF TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS

V. H. KARAMBELKAR, ANKITA KULKARNI, GIRISH GADRE, ANJALI D. PATIL

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 41, Issue 24, Page 23-26

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common metabolic disorder occurring in the world.

Aim: Aim of the study is to study the various non-retinal ocular manifestations associated with T-II diabetes mellitus.

Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 200 patients to assess non retinal ocular manifestations of T-II diabetes mellitus. 65% patients were male while female patients constituted 35% of the study population.

Conclusion: In our study cataract was the most common manifestation seen followed by dry eye and cranial nerve palsies. Most of the patients had poorly controlled blood sugar levels and most manifestations were seen in patients with poor blood sugar levels along with longer duration of diabetes mellitus.

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